That is also a useless analogy. Do bridge builders get to test and re-test their bridges in the real, non-simulated world? Can they instantly make a copy of their bridge with a few critical differences and see how the two behave? Can they re-build their bridge in minutes?
Metaphors aside, I think history is ample evidence that "coding your way around a problem" rather than conceptualizing a solution first is a perfectly valid way to approach professional programming. It's not the only way, and it has drawbacks which others have pointed out here. So does the conceptualize-first approach: you might solve the wrong problem, make something inelastic in the face of changing requirements, or fall into the psychological trap of being attached to your mental model even when it turns out that you really didn't think of everything and have to make changes on the fly.
I'm really tired of people being dogmatic about either approach ("move fast and break things/pivot; anyone else isn't really interested in getting stuff done!", "you're just a messy code monkey unless you can hold the solution in your head before you start!"). It's almost always veiled arrogance rather than honest improvement-seeking, in my experience.
> I'm really tired of people being dogmatic about either approach
Exactly - and the implication that I am being dogmatic is a straw man. I am simply opposed to arguments that depend on poor analogies.
Furthermore, all of the bad things that you say can happen if you try to think ahead are as least as likely to happen if you don't, and especially if you have gone in the wrong direction for some time (I know the latter is a manifestation of the sunk-cost fallacy, but it happens a lot on real projects.)