I'm not sure of that. There's tons of stuff in existence that has state changing GET handlers that don't have the goal of working around CORS, check out the HN upvote button. It's conceivable to me that if Zoom managed to send a CORS response header, they might have used an XHR with GET (considering GET is the default for XHR). But a discussion of GET vs POST seems largely irrelevant, because POST doesn't solve the problem.
>Implemented properly this CORS approach does protect against CSRF without the need for an explicit token.
The problem is that your definition of "properly" is "must reject requests with a Content-Type other than application/json". That's a non-obvious definition of properly that's not stated in the CORS article. That body parser article is better (although it does seem mistaken about XHRs being unable to make cross-origin requests). The CORS article would be better if it mentioned the Content-Type requirement and linked to the body parser article.
Although implementing CSRF protection via Content-Type is somewhat fragile. Someone might want to support a new Content-Type in the future and not realize that the Content-Type restriction is security-critical. Implementing it via an Origin check (or an X-Not-Simple-CORS: true header) would be clearer.