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Nobody talks about the real reason to use tabs over spaces (reddit.com)
122 points by kbr on July 3, 2019 | hide | past | favorite | 93 comments

Personally, I prefer hard tabs to spaces. The rationale is simple: every single dev I've worked with has had a separate preference on how many spaces ahould be used for an indent. I've seen 2, 3 and 4 commonly used. If you use hard tabs, every dev can set their editor to their indentation of choice. If you use spaces, that freedom is lost.

I say this as a currently predominantly Python dev, where spaces are encouraged and recommended, but I disagree as stated above.

Currently, I prefer a 2 space indent after previously using a 4 space indent for decades.

In my book, the answer has always been: tabs for indentation, spaces for alignment. Tabs allow everyone to choose the gap for new blocks they like, and spaces make sure that a gap of 16 characters is always a gap of 16 characters (because whatever you align with is 16 characters long).

Practically, I eventually got fed up explaining this. Spaces only is easier to explain, because there is very little to get wrong with "spaces only".

Python 3 won't compile with mixed indentation so by recommending a mixture you're picking a fight you cannot win and still have python programmers along with you.

Seems like it will to me. Here's an example using tabs for indent and spaces for alignment:


I can't follow that link but I'll trust you, I was just going off what the documentation had to say: https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0008/#tabs-or-spaces

My reading of "Disallow" must be wrong.

As long as you always “indent” with tabs and only use spaces after, you’re good, I believe. That is, if you want to align something, you just first indent to the level of the previous line with tabs and then you can use spaces for alignment within that indentation level. What you can’t do is, for example, have a space and then a tab.

My argument against this is that I have never, ever seen a tabbed code base where if you changed the original tab size of the author the code didn't end up looking like total shit, usually because of next-line alignment issues.

IIRC the original Sun Java source used an 8-space tab width, and looking at it with a 4-space width made it much more difficult to read.

I don't know why I can't downvote you so I need to reply.

This probably happens because there are tabs used for alignment too. Like many many many people have said, tabs are for indentation, spaces are for alignment. When people advocate for tabs, they understand their meaning, and they also use spaces for alignment. If someone uses tabs for everything always forever everywhere, they might as well just use only spaces.

>I don't know why I can't downvote you so I need to reply.

Because you can't downvote posts more than 24 hours old.

I'm not sure why you'd want to downvote that post anyway; it made a reasonable point in a polite way. Replying is better than downvoting unless the original post made an egregious sin.

I consider a downvote as a disagreement with no further comment. But I understand what you're saying.

> If you use spaces, that freedom is lost.

The lost freedom can be found again: hack an open source editor to render leading spaces as elements that have a configurable width.

Nobody who calls themselves a programmer should be whining about this, really.

This only works in some editors while tab width works in almost every text editor ever. Also, when the visually impaired people from the post complain that it really is a problem for them, that’s hardly whining — that’s you ignoring their (very valid, IMHO) struggles and concerns.

I do 99% or more of my Python programming in emacs, where in python-mode a tab automatically turns into spaces.

> If you use spaces, that freedom is lost.

That freedom isn't lost. As the pro-space camp is wont to point out, you're free to pile on another layer of translation software to revert the translation software that transformed the original tab input to a set of spaces.

And because everybody is using programmable IDEs (or IDEs that have had all possible programs precompiled into them), this translation will be part of your 10MB init config file, and because it's 2019 the translation is guaranteed to work with 100% fidelity. It's seamless!

Also, Google uses spaces, and if it's good enough for them, end of story. No matter that KNF (kernel normal form) for Linux, Solaris, and all the BSDs uses hard tabs, not to mention countless GNU projects. Unix developers aren't accustomed to writing readable, shareable source code that interoperates with a diverse set of tooling.

Freedom is lost. I'm unaware of any IDE that will expand a 2 space indent to 4 on commit, without using special hooks.

Google using spaces means jack didly squat to me. I dont work for them and never will. Frankly, I disagree with a lot of their published coding styles for Python and C++. It may work for them, and I understand why they may want that homogony internally, but doesn't mean I have to like or use their style.

Don't want to start a holy war, but just my perspective.

"Also, Google uses spaces, and if it's good enough for them, end of story"

That's no argument

EDIT: The commenter is being sarcastic. Don't downvote them :)

"10MB init config file" - this is the point at which you gotta realize they are being sarcastic.

I think you're right. I read it quickly on mobile and missed that.

A commenter in that Reddit thread made that argument, more or less: https://www.reddit.com/r/javascript/comments/c8drjo/nobody_t...

> Google uses spaces

Btw, Bill Gates uses tabs[0], so any decisive argument is impossible these days, because of legoog.

Personally, I prefer to make up my own mind on what I use rather than relying on big/ ¿evil corps design practices. I'm with GP and BG on this one though.

[0] https://www.businessinsider.com.au/bill-gates-on-tabs-versus...

Your sarcasm is brilliant; top points! :-)

All tabs for me. We can configure your editors to show it as whatever we want; no post and pre check in transformation needed. Accessibility is another reason. So really, why is this even an argument?

Doesn't work for blocks that contain nested indentation levels, but are themselves positioned from something aligned:

   (long-function-name (lambda (arg ...)
                         (let ()
                       more args ...)
That (lambda ...) doesn't start on a tab-established indentation; it's an argument to long-function-call. But inside the (let ...), it's indentation as usual. If we rename long-function-name, to something that is one character longer, the whole lambda block moves one character to the right.

If you think this is just Lisp, think again; thanks to its influence, such patterns are showing up all over the place in numerous languages.

But that style elides the distinction between syntax and semantics by making indentation a function of the number of letters in an identifier. The above code isn't indenting so much as typesetting--aligning visual elements, not grouping semantic components such as compound statements. If you're typesetting and the only thing you can rely on is monospace fonts, then of course you must use spaces. That's reflected in the rule, "tabs for indentation, spaces for alignment."[1]

The lack of convenient semantic cues in the source file representation is exactly what burdens the visually impaired disproportionately. The well-sighted don't need a specialized parser and formatter for a language as a prerequisite to reasonably comfortably reading and editing because visual alignment suffices. The history of teletypes and keyboards made tabbed indentation an accidental equalizer when it came to source code editing. The well-sighted needed to willfully change convention to discard that benefit, and did so for highly dubious reasons.

[1] Which arose out of the tabs v spaces debate as a principled compromise and is not itself a historical style, AFAIK.

Not going to get into the details of the argument (there is a reason tabs vs spaces is considered the prototypical "religious war"), but I do strongly disagree with the way it was argued, and I felt the need to comment because I so frequently see this type of discourse and find it very disheartening. It's what I usually call the "If you disagree with me you want to kill puppies" (or, in this case, "if you disagree with me you hate blind people") form of argument. The author really isn't inviting people to challenge his thinking with his final sentence - I feel like he's instead trying to flat out invalidate other opinions by emphasizing how callous you must be to have them.

FWIW, I believe there are other opinions that are at least worthy of consideration, but I think other commenters have made those points as well.

so what are your counterarguments then?

in your company code that only a known set of people need to work with, you can choose whatever suits the group.

but in a public project, the argument that tabs help visually impaired coders is a serious point that is hard to refute.

Even in private company code, there may well come a day when a vision impaired person is hired and has to work on the codebase. Even though the odds are low, you'd be setting yourself up for long term success if you make the switch now. Not saying that you should, just that it's always worth considering who will end up maintaining your code after you finish working on it.

in a company it is still possible to convert the code at the point when that employee joins.

for a FOSS project, the decision to join may well depend on the readability of the code, at which point it is already to late to solve the problem, because the potential developer already moved on.

>> The argument that a visually impaired coder doesn't already have an IDE that can detect spaces used for indentation automatically is impossible to refute.

this reply was killed (probably for good reason) but i want to respond anyways:

there are no IDEs for visually impaired developers. at least i could not find any. all i found was workarounds and extensions. so that supposedly impossible to refute point is hereby refuted.


sure it is possible to add such features but the market for this is by no means mature, and it is not a given that a developer will have these tools available for their use.

It's not clear that tabs are the best technical solution. For starters, why can't there be a text editor (or text editor feature) of rendering the leading spaces of a line with a flexible size, so that the data itself doesn't have to be massaged to achieve the effect?

If some visually impaired people insist that 80 column punched cards are the best for them, do we switch to that? Or maybe we should all work with Braille or Morse Code? I'm not convinced by lowest-common-denominator arguments. Suppose that no code representation method suits every possible programming minority; do we give up and not code at all?

Here is a counterargument: I'm not switching to idiotic tabs even if doing so saves puppies from being drowned. Not caring is a perfectly valid argument.

very good point. there is certainly room for improvement. a lot of room actually.

im fact it irks me every time if i have to change the indentation of code already written just because i changed the nesting depth. it causes changes in lines of code that haven't actually changed, and messes up the diff as well as things like git blame...

we can imagine a solution by looking at lisp for example. its syntax makes it possible to store the code without any indentation at all. in fact even without any linebreaks (let's ignore comments for now) and rely entirely on an editor to present the code in a readable format.

this should be possible with other languages too. especially if we design them with that goal in mind.

well said. so many of these crippleocracy arguments are cropping up these days, with the poster virtue signalling.

I wouldn't say hate. Just that you don't care about their coding needs.

What is the counter-argument?

Did you know that you can abuse font ligatures to have adjustable indents even when using spaces and not tabs?

Its possible using font ligautures to turn predefined sequences of characters into a different set of glyphs. This is usually used to display nicely joined letters, or rendering multi-character math symbols as a nicer single wide character. An example of the letters thing is the sequence "fi" on mac. It's one I see on macs and in my android keyboard autocomplete.

But you can abuse it. I took a mac fixed width font and added a ligature that turned four spaces into three spaces. And what do you know, it actually worked. I tried it in IntelliJ and with whitespace highlighting on, it correctly takes up 3 spaces but has 4 space markings - so IntelliJ handles it properly.

I don't advocate this, but i would like to make a cli tool someday that lets you take a ttf and add in whater spacing conversion ligature you want.

That's disgusting and I liek lots.

Every time this subject comes up I get farther down on the opinion that not moving forward from file formats based on what a Model 33 Teletype was capable dealing with is a mistake that keeps on giving.

The knee-jerk reaction is almost certainly going to go along the lines of “But you can emulate all of those features with spaces anyways!”

Which is true. But what if my tools don’t all do that? What if doing so makes it harder to work for some reason or another? Users who use this tab emulation will experience all of the downsides that spaces are supposed to avoid, like misaligning justified comments. I think it’s a waste of effort.

All I can say is, I appreciate the Go team’s decision to use tabs. It makes semantic sense, it puts everyone on the same playing field, and it doesn’t require editor support. Even Windows 98 notepad can be used comfortably as a code editor for tabs-based code, if you for some reason wanted to do that. In reality that is not necessary or desired, but it illustrates that this is the path of least resistance.

That web browsers handle tabs poorly is of no concern to me. If it were really a huge problem, pretty much any editor in existence can do a Replace All to get back perfect spaces-indented code.

I really don’t care about tabs vs. spaces anymore. I just go with what ever my auto formatter uses. But I do think we have been having the wrong argument all these years, and I think the proliferation of auto formatters are setting us straight, finally.

The issue is not tabs vs. spaces. It is block indentation vs. alignment. If you use alignment you are forced to use monospace fonts, if you use alignment with tabs, everyone is forced to set the same tab-stop (missing the point of tabs).

Block indentation on the other hand allows people to use whatever font they want (including non-monospace fonts) and what ever tab-stop they want. At that point it doesn’t matter anymore whether the indentation is done using tabs or spaces. The preferred font settings of the developers can deal with it.

Exactly! Personally I find alignment (as opposed to block indentation) an annoying abuse of monospacing, especially when it's produced by overzealous code formatters.

> I just go with what ever my auto formatter uses.

Great on new code, but if you're doing this with older and messier codebases and not limiting the formatting to just your changes then you will ruin git/svn blame, at least places that don't ignore whitespace. If others are using the blame tool and frequently see your name then your coworkers might think less of you, even though it was just an auto formatter change.

If the team agrees with the formatting, I don't think anyone would "think less of you" for applying it.

> I just go with what ever my auto formatter uses.

Ah, so you're That Guy who messes up hundreds of irrelevant lines with whitespace changes along with their bug fix commit. :)

To be honest using non monospace font when coding should be be fireable offense.

I mean good luck with diffing that.

> To be honest using non monospace font when coding should be be fireable offense.

Unless I'm coding with a wordprocessor that embeds my font choices and forces them on others, why should anyone else care, much less have cause to punish?

> I mean good luck with diffing that.

“Diffing” and “coding” are different code-related activity and aren't constrained to use the same font, so why would my choice of coding font have any effect on diffing?

You right. Diff tools should use fixed width characters as diff operators (em-space, minus-sign, and plus sign are usually the same width in most fonts), but I doubt any diff tool does. It is a shame. The only reason we use monospace fonts as an industry is because that is how we’ve always done it, and now we are stuck there because we fail to think out side of the box (pun intended) when we make our tools.

Monospaced fonts are good for editing. Variable width characters are good for quick reading because they allow you to scan past spelling errors in prose. Monospaced fonts have distinctive 'textures' that make them amenable to detecting symbol identity. Variable width fonts intentionally eliminate that texture and are often optimized for ink density to 'grey out' blocks of text. Arrow keys don't work predictably in variable width text.

There is no reason font designers can’t create variable width font faces that optimize character distinctions and important features while reading code. Many font faces even have settings that allow you to opt into making characters more distinguishable.

You are right about navigating between lines in a variable width fonts. However that is a problem with many text boxes on the web (including slack and github) and I don’t find it that much of a headache. I find it kind of rare that I need to navigate between subsequent lines and maintain the column except maybe at the start of the indentation level.

Not just diff tools. When you write your own code you are constantly diffing against other code. In essence monospace font prevents these kind of small errors.

Merely downvoting your comment should be punishable by a six month revocation of internet access.

> If it were really a huge problem, pretty much any editor in existence can do a Replace All to get back perfect spaces-indented code.

Sometimes tabs or spaces are data, like in strings. Replace All is too blunt.

For displaying code on websites, it may be a necessary step even if it loses data. Still, at least for most of my personal use cases, it's fine - If I need a tab character in a string I almost always use a tab escape (like \t) anyways, the main exception being for code generation where it is fine if it changes anyways.

Yeah but what if my tools don't all handle tabs well?

I happen to know an amazing developer who mostly uses notepad. Sometimes he will start Visual Studio for other reasons, and then might edit files that way, but typically he edits with notepad. Notepad is fast and simple.

It has a horrible undo behaviour. I need a reasonable undo to work effectively. And by reasonable I mean pretty much any other editor in the world except notepad.

Also paste is suboptimal but that’s forgivable.

And finally open a file without /r characters for new lines and have fun!

When learning a new language, I tend to use a basic text editor and run the compiler directly on the command line until I can at least get things working in it. Then I might look at IDEs.

One thing taught to me by an accessibility advocate in a university was that accessibility isn't just for people who have sensory problems, Accessibility is about making things accessible for everyone. Given that everyone seems to prefer their own indent size, using tabs and setting the tab width in the editor is an accessibility win for everyone, not just partially-sighted users.

I've been a proponent of spaces until now because of consistency, but this argument has won me over to tabs.

Any visually impaired person to join the debate and help clarify?

It seems everyone is giving their opinion except the affected population.

As a visually impaired person myself, I often find it funny that people who are zealots about certain topics suddenly change their mind because someone with a "disability" (Which can mean nearly anyone tbh) is affected. Its weird, how the other humans opinion becomes suddenly more relevant because I guess they pity them?

"I will fight Frank to the death on tabs vs. spaces, but Marry wears glasses so she is always right!" Humans are weird.

And to weigh in on tabs vs spaces, or rather not, while I always set my preferred tab with and use the tab key to indent, I don't know what characters my tools insert and I don't or ever have cared.

I don't think it's pity.

There's a difference between having a petty argument about something that might cause a slight discomfort to someone, and something that will potentially exclude members of team.

I don't think the form of that reddit post is great as it does have some guilt tripping, but I think the intention behind it is well meaning.

Now whether it's true or not I'm not sure, we can only ask more visually impaired developers to join the debate so we can be informed

If the author had written about how they used to omit alt text on all images and explain to co-workers how it's a waste of energy because it doesn't show up anyway, but then one day reached enlightenment about how some user agents do use it and many people using such agents are visually impaired, and promulgated that everyone should ensure that non-decorative, non-captioned images have alt text, would that also be a form of pity? Are all a11y efforts pitiful?

I don't think they are, but there is a difference at not including someone and just discomforting them.

So the guy who has his tabs set to 2 and huge font sizes, that's me, because I am disabled, but it could also be my dad, who is just old and would want a larger font size because its easier on the eyes. But we both would still be able to work with bigger tabs or smaller font, it would just be annoying. But that can be true for every coworker, so I think the disabled persons opinion should not have more weight in such a debate.

Leaving alt tags from images makes them unusable for a screen reader though. That argument carries more weight, because the user would not be inconvenienced, but excluded.

And really, I am not arguing against any form of effort to make something work good for all involved, but rather that it often seems that empathy gets only switched on in people when someone plays a minority card. And that sucks.

Great answer, thank you. It seems like the accessibility bar is often described as equal enjoyment for all, not merely attainability for all. Based on that, I figured an inconvenience or annoyance should be below the bar, and you are very forgiving to instead find them acceptable!

Your point about minorities is well taken, but I guess the reality is that creating for the majority involves more obvious or ubiquitous knowledge, so creating with minorities in mind takes more conversation, teaching, learning, and card-like moments. Empathy in the latter but not the former is probably innate at some level.

Yes, it is pity.

Is that anything of which to be ashamed?

No, it indicates empathy and a willingness to change to make a task easier for someone.

I don't understand why you think that is weird. Perhaps the zealot hadn't considered that perspective beforehand.

Being pitied is not a nice thing. Show Empathy to all humans. Pitying someone does not make you a better person.

If editors respected logical indentation levels, tabs would be more feasible. Consider a pair of lines like:

    printk(KERN_INFO "%s: blah, blah %d\n",
           __func__, arg)
This will work okay like so:

    [tab][tab]printk(KERN_INFO "%s: blah, blah %d\n",
    [tab][tab]       __func__, arg)
If we change the tab size, the alignment is preserved.

Problem is, many editors in "mixed tabs and spaces" mode wants to fill the second line with the maximum possible number of tabs, and minimum spaces. It has no idea that the two belong to the same nesting level. Say that we have four-space tabs. Then the editor does this:

    [tab][tab]printk(KERN_INFO "%s: blah, blah %d\n",
    [tab][tab][tab]   __func_, arg)
four of our alignment spaces turn to a tab, followed by three spaces for alignment.

Even if your True Scotsman's editor is smarter than this, someone on the team will use something that isn't and mess things up.

So far, anyone who lives long enough becomes visually impaired. I hope to be able to still code when I've very old.

What proponents of tabs over spaces miss is the fact that consistency is the most important thing.

Editors ship with spaces over tabs as default, so you should use spaces over tabs. You will be more consistent with others and reduce errors if people somehow haven't picked up your configuration.

Anything else is just fighting the tooling.

Without consistency (hopefully brought by automation) you will find team members struggling with merge conflicts that were unecessary and only brought about because of whitespace changes.

Since we started forcing prettier on stage we've seen a reduction in manual merge resolution being necessary.

And if you're using a tool anyway to apply this consistency, the decision just becomes the following, do you use the defaults or a custom configuration? Your life will be a lot easier if you just go along with the defaults, even if they aren't your first preference.

That's not to say you can't custommise anything (e.g. the default line width of 80 in prettier is too low) but you should have a very good reason to do so. And as others have pointed out, this isn't one of them because tooling can recognise spaces as tabs just as they recognise tabs and still adjust accordingly.

> Editors ship with spaces over tabs as default, so you should use spaces over tabs. You will be more consistent with others and reduce errors if people somehow haven't picked up your configuration.

Actually, no, that's a very recent thing. Tabs were the default for decades in the vast majority of editors, particularly on Unix. Even today, if I fire up most vi implementations (I really only use nvi on BSD) tab is the default. Pretty sure this is still the case for vim and emacs, too, and might still be the case for other common text editors like nano.

There's no denying that spaces are far more popular now in general, but I'll have to draw the line at whitewashing history. I haven't been programming for nearly as long as many people here, but IME it felt like the mainstreaming of C++, which brought the Windows/Visual Studio crowd into open source, in tandem with Python[1], were responsible for the dominance of spaces. Even Java code eventually capitulated, where standard practice was originally all tabs owing to it's genesis at Sun. Unix-related software and open source was almost entirely tabs until the early aughts. You can look at the source code yourself, though it's not always obvious because tabs being tabs the indentation usually looks natural regardless of your tab stop.

As I mention elsethread, Linux, all the BSDs, etc still use tabs. Projects with a sufficiently long pedigree typically still use tabs.

(Says a user of JOE, still bitter that Joe relented and changed the default indentation to spaces a few years ago.)

[1] I always wondered how Python ended up standardizing on spaces. I was never into Python, but IIRC Guido preferred tabs. I'm sure there's a story behind it, and have an inkling it's related to the onslaught of developers who cut their teeth in the Windows ecosystem.

I'm not "whitewashing history" that's a bizarre accusation because I'm not talking about history, I'm talking about what you should use today.

Just because tabs would have been the right choice in the past doesn't make it the right choice today.

Lots of REPLs have or used to have problems with tabs.

I wouldn't necessarily recommend jEdit, but I'm sure a lot of editors have a soft tabs feature like it. And with linters I can't imagine you couldn't just run your local fork with which ever have the integration make the production version be which ever. Anyway... I personally don't care what you do so long as you try to do the simplest and least and obvious thing.

Exactly. I think this debate is kind of outdated, we have tools now to deal with stuff like this. Even the OP argument of the visually impaired doesn’t really matter as long as you set your auto formatted to use block indentation and no alignment (sorry gofmt!). Just use a font face the smooshes the whitespace together if you need small indentation with a large font size, or one that draws it out if you need to exaggerate it.

So one thing I've wondered for a while is why every single non-public tab-indented project I've ever had to join (as opposed to create) has been a disaster from a consistent code formatting perspective.

My experience is the opposite. When a project is tab indented and you have 1 guy indenting by 2 spaces and another by 4 the inconsistency is spotted pretty quickly, maybe this is what you're noticing?. When spaces are used it's easy for tabs to hide.

Also there's a lot of crappy editors that don't handle smart tabs well, including some big, expensive, proprietary IDE's.

I'm guessing at least part of it is different smart tab behavior, but I've opened files to find chunks that were indented with double tabs (as in one indent level was done as two tabs) in the middle files that were otherwise single tab indented and even weirder stuff that I suspect is because of somebody indenting wrapped text.

(Yes, poor QC and Dev ops went along with it.)

My take: whatever the project is currently using, spaces or tabs, please keep it that way. You might think this is important but really you can find arguments for either way, consistency trumps everything.

I recently contributed to a GPL project that uses tabs+spaces, but I have emacs configured to not use tabs ever, at all.

After the first git commit it was obvious that this was going to be a problem, the diff lines didn't match at all.

So I'm seriously considering, after 38 years of being a die-hard 'spaces or death!' user to switch to using tabs with my tab-stop size configured to match my spaces preference.

I was a tabs guy but now I’ve made peace with spaces. Honestly any IDE including low touch ones like Vim will auto indent for you anyway.

I don't have a strong opinion on this long-running debate, but the example given sounds like a valid argument.

I just changed my VS Code settings to not insert spaces when pressing tab ("editor.insertSpaces": false) and will see how it goes. Being able to change the tab size ("editor.tabSize": 4) already seems like a neat feature that will come in useful.

Well, Lisp code can't be properly indented with just tabs. So tough luck, I guess? Why wouldn't editors programmers use allow to customize indentation space size instead? So you could set up each indentation space = 2 characters and get huge indents. Or set it to 1/2 character and get tiny indents. Seems easy to implement in e.g. Emacs.

Why can't it? Fixed width tabs, sure, but tab stops would work fine.

It is more work in the editor, so I don't expect it anytime soon. Especially not with consistency. But it is doable.

Also, you couldn't possibly follow ruby's style guide with tabs:


What most of these discussions leave out is that you can't just say "use spaces instead of tabs."

You have to say how many spaces.

Is it 2? 3? 4? 8? How many?

If you use spaces, you are committing to say how many will represent one indent. And please take note of how your choice affects the visually impaired programmers from the Reddit thread. Or someone like me who finds monospaced fonts hard to read and proportional fonts much more legible.

But why do you even need to say this? Why should it matter how many spaces represent an indent level?

The only time it really matters is when you not only use indentation, you use column alignment, like this:

This style is mandated by many coding standards, including Google's C++ standard. If you use an alignment-based style, you had better use spaces, or else you are in the "tabs for indentation, spaces for alignment" muddle.

What would happen if you abandon column alignment and use only indentation:

Here the parentheses are treated just like curly braces: if you need to line stuff up, don't do it at whatever column things happened to fall on, do it by indentation only. That's how we code curly brace blocks.

Now your code will be just as readable if it's indented with tabs, or with whatever number of spaces you like.

If we coded curly brace blocks the way these standards require us to use parenthesized expressions, our code would end up looking like this:

  if(someBooleanExpression) {someFunctionCall();
                             if(anotherBooleanExpression) {doSomething();
Do you code like that? Do you want to code like that? Then why do you format code like that (if you do) simply because the delimiters happen to be parentheses instead of curly braces?

If you stop using column alignment, and start using indentation instead, so many problems go away. Space indentation (and how many spaces?) no longer has any advantage over tabs.

I sometimes wonder why so many coding standards mandate column alignment. I think it is because people get tired of talking about it and say "we must agree on something, now! And we will stick with it forever."

I've been in these discussions, and what happens is whoever is most "passionate" about their particular style gets their way. And that will usually be the person who is fussiest about these things, the person who loves fiddly column alignment. Why else would such an impractical approach be baked into so many coding standards?

Tabs could plausibly work if the editors were smart enough to treat this:

as being all at the same indentation level. If this is at indentation level 2 then all these lines should start with two tabs. All whitespace after those tabs should be spaces. Then you can adjust the tab size without spoiling the relative alignment.

The editor has to understand the language fairly well. (In the case of C or C++, it also has to recognize preprocessor lines and treat them specially, as well as certain elements like goto labels that are out of indentation.)

It won't work in Lisps, because in Lisp, nested expressions have their own internal indentation which can be relative to alignment:

  (long-function-name (lambda (arg)
                        (aligned ...)
                        (stuff ...)))
Basically the only thing that could work 100% would be the original typewriter/TTY/terminal concept of movable tab stops. The editor would grok each expression, and then set up custom tab stops for each line individually:

  (long-function-name (lambda (arg)
                        (let ((var ...))
                          (stuff arg arg
  v                   v v v      v
The v's indicate the tab stops for the last line, so five tabs are used. The algorithm for discovering these tab stops doesn't seem overly complicated. We shoot a ray upward at column zero. Whatever it intersects with is the anchor line. We then look for the first tab stops in the anchor line by moving the vertical ray. By this process we discover the ( in (long-function-name, and the ( on (lambda. After that, our vertical hit test encounters the (let line, so that yields a tab stop. If that weren't there, then the (arg) would be the next stop.

Basically tabs should intelligently be based on preceding material, as if an invisible helper were setting tab stops on our typewriter.

One problem with this is that any piece of software that has to format the code has to implement the same thing, exactly.

Meta: I am curious why this suddenly dropped off the home page and down to around #98. It can't be the upvote-to-comment ratio, as there are 85 up votes and 43 comments. Was it a manual intervention?

Someone just set the vertical indent (form feed character) to 90 lines. It supposedly helps the humor-impaired.

Has more energy ever been expended more often for less gain than this debate? It is truly the most well-painted of bike sheds.

I didn't think there'd ever be anything new in this debate, but this is the first time I've heard the accessibility argument.

I don't see why people spend time on this. Someone mentioned recently (or maybe I dreamt this) that programming is really, really much more about the specification than the implementation. If your specification is done flawlessly, then the implementation follows from that. I had the idea a while ago of starting a alternative to Excel and then I realised it would be way more useful to simply document Excel's behavior.

> I don't see why people spend time on this.

Because control freaks still can't accept personal preferences and insist on uniformity, the idea that I won't indentation to look slightly different on my computer than it does on there's is a heresy. If they world were up to them they'd enforce other things like editor schemes, in fact some have tried to: https://vim.fandom.com/wiki/Modeline_magic

First shalt thou press the Holy Tab. Then, shalt thou space to three. No more. No less. Three shalt be the number thou shalt space, and the number of the spacing shall be three. Four shalt thou not space, nor either space thou two, excepting that thou then proceed to three. Five is right out. Once the number three, being the third number, be reached, then, writest thou thy Holy code.

The last thing we want is control freaks preparing instructions for machines to execute.

Control freaks should be in politics, management, education, nursing and such, and stay the hell out of software.

click click click click click click click click vs tab

sounds like a perfect embodiment of modern software development style.

Do you seriously believe people are manually pressing the spacebar to indent with spaces, or are you trying to make a joke?

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