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Not necessarily backup records, but you can add multiple A/AAAA records. There is no guaranteed order though.

It is possible to have multiple A/AAAA records pointing to different loadbalancers, but I don't know how browsers would deal with this.

Browsers would deal with it just fine (assuming the site is down hard and not responding with errors). Its some of the API tools and old libraries that may not. They would need retry logic that mimics the browser cycling through multiple A records. OTOH, API tools that have retry logic would just keep trying until the errors clear up. A browser will stop retrying when something responds unless there was javascript running in memory that had retry logic.

If there are errors, the site would need to be modified to not respond if broken and unable to proxy to a working origin. Perhaps CF have not coded their proxies in this manor.

The lookup is essentially random. If you point DNS to 2 IP's and one of those goes down, then (without going into detail) half of your requests will fail.

Yes, that is correct.

But it does make it possible for a browser to retry a different IP if a 500 range error, or timeout occurs.

But like I said in my other post: I don't know if browsers actually do this.

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