1. Inability to estimate effort. Admittedly an academic issue, and should be taught to all engineers in college.
2. Inability of management to deal with delays due to bad estimation. This might be caused by a "bozo explosion", say, (where inept managers hire more inept people underneath them.)
Edited to add:
3. Why do we keep making assumptions that management must be infallible? In any dysfunctional organization, it might just take one bad manager high up in the chain that causes pain for the entire organization beneath him.
As much as I did not particularly care for the management style of Steve Jobs, as far as I know, he was the one that first used the term.
This just happened recently. Maybe you'll appreciate it.
15 years ago or so (before the term "technical debt" got widespread usage) management kept asking why we working on so many bugs. The solution was to label them as "enhancements".
Just recently within the past year, I saw the exact same thing happen again.
Amazon took that to heart. Seems to have worked out for them.