On that protocol, the various systems broadcast what prefixes they can route, which then affects the rest of the networks' routing decisions.
By error or malice, a system can report a prefix they cannot or should not route, causing other systems to start routing traffic across it. This will either just cause weird routes (such as ones going through certain suspicious countries), cause poor performance for those routed, or no connection at all for those routed.
Eventually some governments will have to get involved...
The protocol is fine.
BGP was designed for operators to implement a routing policy. In most implementations it allows everything by default with no modifications to route metadata, so if you do not set up your policy correctly you'll have issues like this.
What you are describing is a protocol problem.
Such system would also contain human error to a smaller set of possible faults.