Tech and commercial divers breathe exotic air mixtures which are hypoxic and include helium to mitigate this.
Dive science is pretty fascinating and is still a developing field.
Nitrogen becomes narcotic at high pressure; breathing normal air at 30m is like being tipsy, but below 90m it can be fatal.
I've seen and heard many stories of experienced divers that would do silly things due this effect; that is why you always have to have partner with you and the rest of the crew near by.
This effect is highly dependent of person and I've seen guys goes beyond 40m without getting this at all.
It's pretty eerie. It's _literally_ like being drunk, but you happen to be strapped to an oxygen tank with 100ft of water over your head, and could get extremely sick if you did something too stupid.
It's actually a pretty safe activity, given you follow safety rules. It's however pretty easy to stray from them.
It really depends on your physical readiness before the dive.
Lack of sleep, being hungover, hunger, dehydration can all contribute to narcosis.
Fortunately it is pretty hard to miss once you have experienced it a few times.
If you ever experience just go up a couple meters and the symptoms should dissipate.
I like the combination lock too, but I've found that a lot of people struggle with the locks regardless of depth and it can throw some false positives.
The solution to both N2 and CO2 narcosis is the same: put more helium in the mix.
If CO2 is a major contributor to narcosis wouldn't breathing heavier help alleviate it since you are exhaling more CO2?
For deep dives I really enjoy the planning phase, it requires a high degree of technical expertise and a thorough understand of your bodies physical limits.
Also the complexity of rebreather equipment is much higher than traditional scuba diving, so the risk of failure while underwater is much greater.
It is amazing tech though, if the price comes down by half it may become realistic for me.
Wow, I actually didn't know this until now. Is this method used anywhere in medical procedures to resuscitate or prolong life?
See for example https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882104, which states ”the longest time from cardiac arrest to return of spontaneous circulation was 6 h and 52 min”
Notably, her body was cooled down significantly to reduce her metabolic rate down to nothing.
She survived several years, although she never quite recovered fully after that...
By the way this story is a must read.
I think they had mixed results, and I haven't seen them or their competitors launch their products.
It works though, but it seems very difficult to cool the brain without chilling the whole body.
Overall it seems it's just a matter of waiting for technology to advance to the point where we can very move a 150 pound 2-meter-tall 1-foot-deep object from 98 degrees to 30 degrees, and at that point the science fiction will become reality.
I personally would've written 150lb, 6'6 tall, 1ft deep, 37 to 0 degrees
Redefining the hundredweight, seriously?
Or if you wanted to go the other way -- there were plenty of other definitions of the stone in use at the time, after all -- you could have gone with 16 pounds, to maintain parity with the dram and the ounce. Y'all still likely would have screwed up the hundredweight, as 128lb, but you might have at least fixed things by making the ton 16 hundredweight/2048 lb, which would at least have been some lovely binary fractions.
But 14 pounds? That's just madness.
Now the method of achieving vitrification involves pumping the body full of toxic antifreeze. But in principle it's easier to flush the antifreeze out when warming than to reverse ice crystal damage, though the techniques have not yet been worked out.
Thankfully it's not necessary for the reversal procedure to exist now for cryonics to be successfully used in preservation for the future.
And don't bother telling me that it's worth doing if there's even a tiny chance. The chance is exactly 0, and those resources are better spent on the living.
"We are likely to have life extending and resuscitation technologies in 500 years that are better than what we have today."
"The dead rich people in these particular vats of antifreeze have any more than a snowball's chance in hell at being successfully resuscitated."
I think the parent's analysis is correct. Your statements, while also correct, don't really refute the issues pointed out by the parent.
It IS physically possible to revive cryonics patients--as in the laws of physics would permit it, even if we don't have anything near the technology required, yet. This isn't a bold claim but rather a statement of fact with respect to information preservation of the vitrification process, and long-term storage at cryogenic temperatures, both of which are well studied in the context of things like organ donor preservation.
So if you're claiming that cryonics has "a snowball's chance in hell" of working, then I presume that either you are (1) ignorant of the science, or (2) making some sort of statement about long-term storage prospects or the credibility of the organizations involved.
But neither you nor the grandparent actually made any specific claims.
I'm signed up to be a cryonics patient when I die, but yeah, the chances are pretty much nil. Personally, I'll take a slightly diminished bank account and a potentially non-zero percent chance of further life over a zero percent chance, but I won't delude myself into thinking that there's effectively any chance of success here.
Cryonics is ultimately a bet on future technology and future humanity.
Unless you live inordinately long, you'll only be in a position to benefit from that if you are wrong about it being a worthwhile investment. (But right about the technological enablers—just wrong on the socio/legal issues.)
I'd be more concerned with the emotional and mental challenges of being revived centuries hence, which would be considerable to say the least.
Tutankhaman will tell you what to expect when you use cutting-edge technology and preservation techniques in the hopes of some future civilization reviving you.... you'll end up under glass in a Museum. Hell, nobody even TRIED to revive King Tut... you think they'll put much effort into a bunch of anti-freeze saturated popsicles? Seriously doubt it.
That's not a statement of fact, it's a statement of belief. Personally, I think it's highly unlikely that any current vitrification process preserves sufficient information for the patient to be revived. We're nowhere near even understanding what "sufficient information" would be, let alone how to preserve it.
You can flush water pipes with whatever you want and clean and rewater it. A complex organism like the human body - and the brain, we still dont really understand?
Not likely. Maybe not 0 chance in SciFi future, but still not likely.
It's just replacing the faith in one omnipotent's afterlife with another.
(That's supposing "information in your brain" would even be sufficient by itself. Another leap of faith.)
You're missing the point though. These solutions entirely rely on future technology development being the omnipotence that gives you afterlife.
To a pre-industrial mind, a cell phone would be magic. Other things that would seem like magic are faster than light travel, perpetual motion machines, or exact quantum state duplicators. However baring radically new and highly unlikely physics (which would be the hugest cop-out to assume), there will never ever be faster-than-light travel, perpetual motion machines, or quantum replicators. Such technology is simply impossible. Not "we don't know how to do it" but "we know that it cannot be done."
Likewise, once your brain is cremated or reduced to worm food, there is absolutely no way to recover that connectome information which defines who you are. The laws of physics disallow it.
I have only the slightest idea of what technology that is able to revive a cryo preserved brain would look like, and it would certainly seem like magic to someone today. But to revive a cremated brain would require actual magic. There's an important difference there.
Being held in stasis for an unknown length of times seems like utter hell compared to moving on to your next life.
In that sense, a clone is preferable, but maybe not for the new consciousness inhabiting it.
If we ever do crewed interstellar travel, even if we can get the trip time down to 50 years or so, we’ll probably want something like this. But it’s useful even for Mars trips since you can fit a LOT more people in the same space.
Wonder if that's just because it's not viewed as important?
The thing that bothered me that they resumed to do the same dive 3 weeks after the accident - it doesn't sound like enough time to setup protocols to prevent the same accident from occurring again. Also it was very weird to hear that they don't have checklist to follow when they ships's dynamic position system fails...They were essentially trying to control the ship by whatever they can think of for over 20 min while somebody is suffocating on the ocean floor.
What's the documentary called, so I can find it by other means please?
Now I'm watching it :)
Curious why they don't have emergency unmanned drones with the crew or why they don't have emergency tanks at their work site (which he was able to get back to)
(1) - Not sure how well it has aged (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Abyss)
There was a UUV in the water, which helped to locate the casualty but wasn't capable of performing a rescue.
Bailing out to open-circuit SCUBA doesn't help for very long, because of the immense pressures involved. As you go deeper, you need more pressure to inflate your lungs. A cylinder that lasts for an hour near the surface will only last for a couple of minutes at 100m. Tethered divers do carry bailout gas cylinders, but they're very much a temporary fix for brief losses of gas supply.
There are major logistical problems with portering dozens of gas cylinders to a job site that may actually increase the overall risk, because of the far greater time spent in the water. That pile of cylinders won't help you a jot if you lose the job site or you're incapacitated. Saturation divers are increasingly switching to closed-circuit rebreather bailout systems, which recirculate the breathing gas and so are far less affected by depth.
Even that is only a partial help because of the effects of hypothermia - if you lose your umbilical, you lose the warm water supply that stops you from freezing to death. You also lose your lighting and communications, which substantially impedes your ability to self-rescue.
And unfortunately for saturation divers, you can't pressurize cylinders on-site to make up for the difference.
Pressurizing your tank to 210 bar (which puts the same stress on the cylinder walls as 200 bar at the surface) doesn't change the factor-of-10 increase on the other side of your P1V1=P2V2 balance.
Not to mention that you need even more air for decompression time...
fun facts about the abysss.
1. it's a version of the divine comedy, particularly the inferno.
2. the set still exists as of a several years ago
Also, it's staggering how much oxygen can be dissolved into your system at depth. The Navy did some experiments where they put pigs in a chamber, pressurized them to something obscene, like 300 feet, and replaced their blood with water. The oxygen diffused so well the pigs were still conscious and walking around. Source: I work with a lot of Navy dive medicine officers.
I was just saying though, if he did have more oxygen down there he would have had to be awake for that freezing experience...
Having gone through a depressurisation chamber as part of my flight training, at 35,000 feet (the normal cruising altitude for most passenger aircraft), it isn't actually hard to breathe. In fact, it feels quite normal. Your body just doesn't get enough oxygen into the bloodstream because the density of O2 in the stuff you are breathing in is so low, which causes onset of hypoxia.
The very reason why we do the sessions in the chamber - so that we can detect the symptoms of hypoxia particular to our own bodies, because there is normally no way to tell that you are no longer in an O2 rich atmosphere until you notice your fingernails turning blue and flashes of lights on your retina as well as feeling slightly tipsy (my own symptoms).
At higher altitudes (50,000 feet and up), then yes, there are issues because your diaphragm cannot create enough pressure differential against the outside air pressure to make you inhale and fill your lungs. My flight instructor was a test pilot in the 50's and 60's and he said when they were at that altitude, they were literally force fed liquid oxygen through their masks. They couldn't breathe it in, so they just had to open their mouths every few seconds and LOX would be shoved in (at freezing temperatures too, which used to dry out their nose, mouth and throats according to him).
Destin of SmarterEveryDay (with astronaut Don Pettit) recorded his experience with that training, which included a demonstration of the effects of hypoxia on his decision making ability. He doesn't notice the rapidly increasing symptoms:
>> [Destin fails child's shape toy test, saying the cross was a square] "Alright you're starting to have a little shake there, you know from your lack of oxygen. You need to start thinking about getting back on oxygen now Destin."
>> "How would you correct for that? Can you correct for hypoxia for me?" [Destin just sits looking confused] "Alright sir if you don't get on oxygen, you're going to die. Go to your regulator, get all three switches on your regulator..." [Destin looking even more confused: "I don't want to die"]
>> [they get him back on O2, fixing everything in seconds]
We were told that we could possibly make it 3 to 4 minutes at FL250 before having to go back onto oxygen. I managed to get to 5 minutes, but was was pretty much useless after the 3rd minute. I started to feel a real out of body experience, and it was like I was watching my own body do stuff but I couldn't really control it. I managed to get my own mask on and gangload the 3 switches, but I remember watching my colleagues in the chamber struggle and they had to be assisted by the RAAF team. The guys outside the chamber kept a hawk eye watch on all of us, and the guy in the chamber were quick to assist those of us who were in trouble.
What amazed me was as soon as we 'gangloaded' the switches to go back on full O2 with the masks on, recovery to full lucidity was super quick - within 1 or 2 seconds. It wasn't gradual, it was as if someone just whipped a heavy blanket off your brain!
Side story - before we went into the chamber, we had to be fitted for our helmets and masks, and I was seated in the 'fitting chair' in the crew room as 3 RAAF specialists slapped a bone dome and mask on me. Unbeknownst to them, that mask had just come back from a test facility, and thus it still had the wax seal on the end of the O2 hose to the mask.
Normally, there is no seal, so when the mask is clipped on during a test, you can still breathe normally as the valve at the open end just opens and shuts with your lung pressure. With the wax seal on it though, NO air gets through.
It was a few seconds of odd feeling when they snapped the mask on and I tried to breathe in but nothing happened. I remember feeling really freaked out at the sensation of wanting to breathe, but feeling and experiencing absolutely nothing. I started to grapple with the mask release, but they thought I was just uncomfortable with the fit and they kept slapping my hands away and adjusting the side straps.
I went into panic mode, and I am not sure what prompted me, but I started reeling in the trailing hose from my mask and lifted it up to see the seal on the end. One of the crew saw it and exclaimed before grabbing the hose and ripping the seal off. I gulped down lungfuls of air. Not the best start to my first chamber session!
This quote got me. All because of compression & decompression.
> “It is quicker to get back from the Moon than it is from the depths of the sea in some ways.”
It's a great series about exploring Antartica, where the title came from the fact that it takes longer to reach Antartica than to reach space.
"Closer" is a fuzzy concept. I've seen the same point made another way, that you can be closer to space than you are to the sea... even if you're in Japan, a long, narrow island.
But then again, imagine if whenever you tried to drive to Trenton from Manhattan, a tornado picked up your car and threw it back to Manhattan.
> How many atmospheres of pressure can the ship take?
> Well, it's a space ship, so I'd say anywhere between zero and one.
Which is probably already broken:
While extreme/traumatic, I think it could be more reliable as other factors below neck are taken out if equation to dramatically increase chance to survive. Other methods rely on hoping the body isn't too broken to recover. Ie restarting heart, etc then literally giving up as the brain dies from lack of blood flow.
A lite version of above is cutting the veins in neck and attaching a dialysis. Would this lite method work?
Source: Hearsay reports of moving lips from beheaded woman was literally inspiration for this idea, not futurama heads.
One problem at a time.
Head transplantation is still too "out there."
Thence it is not only a problem of oxygenation of brain tissue.
If I needed to, I would definitely choose a new body over a new head.
an extracorporeal technique of providing prolonged cardiac and respiratory support to persons whose heart and lungs are unable to provide an adequate amount of gas exchange or perfusion to sustain life. The technology for ECMO is largely derived from cardiopulmonary bypass, which provides shorter-term support with arrested native circulation.
Glad to see the change, but why even carry a tank with 5 minutes of reserve? Might as well just plan on holding your breath in that case.
Also somewhat related, the deeper you go the less time your tank lasts. From what I remember, at 100m, a "5 minute tank" is probably similar in size to a standard scuba tank.
The limiting factor in ascent (and therefore the reason for the recreational dive limit of 60 feet) is the risk of decompression sickness. If it weren't for that, a diver at arbitrary depth could ascend on a single breath.
Most don't as this is not a very effective or safe way of getting up once you get bellow a few M of water.
Most agency's will teach you to do an Alternate Source assent where you come up breathing of your buddy's air source, as this allows you to come up at a safer and more controlled rate.
You can see this reality reflected in the rescue diver certification (a fairly advanced level of training), which revolves around how to stop people bolting for the surface when they have trouble getting air. Rescue divers are taught some fairly extreme measures—you pull the person's regulator, yank their fins off, pull off their mask, and hold them down by the tank valve, anything you can do to prevent them surfacing at high speed. Better a briefly unconscious diver than one with an air embolism.
Wow, 66 minutes! Amazing.
This has a huge effect on organ donation rates. For my medical emergency thank god I live in the US or my organs would have been donated already.
some places may have a policy for either 'respiratory arrest or cardiac arrest after x period' to be considered clinically dead. If I had been in one of those countries my organs would be in many different people's bodies.
I thank god every day that I was born in the US.
I have a higher likelihood of suffering a stroke in my 30s due to the fake blood injections.
My roommate was paid to keep watch while the offender tried to suffocate me. While transported to the hospital i lost consciousness for a long time. The hospital pretended like they had consent to inject me with the fake blood. The hospital covered up the rohypnol in my system. The nurse there assumed i tried to slip a gril a roofied drink and failed. The college buried the report, blaming it all on me. My parents were shamed. My girlfriend ended up dating the offender for 2 years due to violent threats on family. The offender got away with sexual assault against me (buck breaking). The offender stuck his dick up my ass so I wouldn't tell anyone of the event (i am male and it almost worked). The only reason I survived is that I pretended to die (thanks burn notice) only for the offender to realize he didn't want to kill anyone. I had a brown-out of the events for about 1.5 weeks after. This will be my greatest shame for the rest of my life not trying harder to prosecute the incident.
I just think that in this case, while they (ostensibly) want to promote a documentary, they're presenting it in an honestly compelling way. That's about as much as I could ask for, I think, and I wish others would reimagine how they sell products to align more with this strategy.