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Git rebase in depth (git-rebase.io)
633 points by ddevault on May 10, 2019 | hide | past | favorite | 239 comments

About 99.9% of the time when people talk about rebase they talk about ‘editing’ history or ‘rewriting’ history as in the first sentence of the article.

I find that terminology terribly misleading and when I was learning git and rebase it confused the heck out of me.

No commits are harmed in the operation of `git rebase`. All the commits you had in the repo before the rebase are still in the repo. Git rebase creates a new sequence of commits and after doing its work relocates the branch name to the tip of the new sequence but you can easily access the previous commits if need be:

    $ git co feature-branch
    $ git rebase develop
    $ git co -b before-rebase-feature-branch feature-branch@{1}

This really should be the top comment here. Learning about the non-destructive nature of Git really helped me overcome the unease around using some of Git's more advanced features (especially in a team environment).

Yep. Specifically, git will never delete a commit, unless it is old (like 30 days old or older I think?) and is not part of a branch. I suppose there may be some arcane commands to force a deletion, but it wont happen by accident or by normal usage.

Like you, I felt much more comfortable using git after learning this.

> git will never delete a commit, unless it is old (like 30 days old or older I think?) and is not part of a branch.

Yeah, completely unreachable commits have 30 days, even when you run git gc. The default reflog for a branch is even longer: 90 days!


This is also why commiting very often is a very good idea.

I often try to reassure people new to git that "if you'll just commit often, there's basically no way you can lose work so that I can't help you get it back. Apart from deleting the whole repo folder. Don't delete the repo folder.".

I also have the habit of preventing non-fast-forward pushes on origin/master, which also helps when I can tell my team that they can't trash the origin even if they try.

Which merge strategy do you recommend?

    # Merge commit
    git merge --no-ff -m <message> <hash>
    # Squash and merge
    git merge --no-commit --squash <hash>
    git commit -m <message>
    # Rebase and merge
    git rebase --force-rebase <hash>
From https://stackoverflow.com/a/52301456

I...have to admit that my merge strategy, and what I teach my teams, is "don't" :) (only slightly tongue-in-cheek)

I believe in clean, linear history, and strongly prefer rebase-based workflows to merges. That's actually one of the reasons I chose Phabricator for my current place, as it is also very opinionated towards the same way of working.

Edit: oh, and to answer your actual question, the third one.

+1. Interactive rebase to squash your feature branch, then ff merge into master/mainline.

Years ago when I was just reading about git instead of using it, I saw sentiments along the lines of "always use feature branches and merge them so your thoughts and process can still be looked at later". In the last ~5 years or so I've worked professionally, I've not once wished I could reference intermediate commits in my own code or someone else's. I've found that ambiguities and clarifications can and are caught during the code review process.

I'd say another couple of benefits:

- It's relatively easy to teach git workflows when the log/graph is linear, and similarly it's _way_ easier to reason about your workspace when you have an actual production codebase.

- Merge commits can make certain operations like reverts and patches harder to reason about

> In the last ~5 years or so I've worked professionally, I've not once wished I could reference intermediate commits in my own code or someone else's. I've found that ambiguities and clarifications can and are caught during the code review process.

One command I often use is git blame which allows me to find the commit that's associated with a particular line of code. Then I can look at the commit message and the diff against its parent. Perhaps what I'm changing may undo a bugfix and I wouldn't have realized it without reading the associated commit message.

That's separate from what the grandparent talked about. During the process of developing a new feature, I may incrementally refactor old code a few times, but only some of those changes make it into the final merge.

When I look back at the history, I'm only interested in seeing the changes that actually made it through, not every intermediate alley and dead end in between. If those dead ends are significant discoveries/results, I document them elsewhere.

Yes, that's exactly my main motivation for rebasing too: properly thought-out commits can give more context to the lines of code I'm looking at. (I wrote these thoughts up in more detail here: https://vincenttunru.com/Spend-effort-on-your-Git-commits )

The trick is you have to pick one of "merge always and avoid rebase" or "rebase always and avoid merging". If you take a branch, merge master into it, do some more development and then rebase it onto master, you are asking for trouble. If you have a revert in there (and especially a revert on a merge commit), it's a world of hurt.

But either way works fine. It just gives you a different history. My team likes merging because they don't understand exactly what happens when rebasing. In that environment `git log --topo-order` is practically a necessity, though.

I prefer to say, merges should only flow one way. (And always rebase before a merge.)

If you are merging master into a feature branch that has ongoing work and continues without merging back to master, that's the problem.

If your feature branch is short-lived, it can be easily rebased.

If your other branch is more like a release branch, with lots of work that can't be rebased easily, some times you can't really avoid a merge from master without communicating it first. If your team is large or distributed it might not be practical to say "release has moved to (rebased ref), please catch up"

In that case you should treat merges to release the same as merges to master (they should be finished bits of work that are considered published) and any unmerged features for the release, are kept on feature branches that are based on the release. They can be rebased after the point where master is merged back into release to avoid the nasty merge conflicts.

When cleaning up my own feature branch for review

    git merge —-squash <tree-ish>
When merging into the baseline

    git merge —-no-ff <tree-ish>
The reason for the latter is subtle. Yes, a perfectly linear history is nice in the aesthetic sense. However, the merge commits are artifacts of reviews that are useful in process audits, which QA and QC like to preserve.

How comes that I see older commits with git log -p ? I can even see what the commit changed.

Those commits are referenced. Parent comment is talking about commits that have no references to them (ie. You make a commit then remove all traces of it, it is not gone completely until after a certain amount of time).

I had to do a git history rewrite via "git filter-branch" and one other method. I can attest that you really have to go out of your way to actually permanently get rid of anything in a git repo. It's always funny to me when I see an engineer have a panic attack the first time they think they've trashed the repo and lost important code. They always have that same look as relief washes over them when I show them how to recover from the mistake.

Git is non-destructive and its great. Until you learn why the really dangerous command nobody talks about is git checkout.

Or until you accidentally check in a file that contains a secret. Then the non-destructiveness becomes a serious problem.

Two possibilities there: either your secret was published to others, and it's not a secret anymore, or it wasn't, and you can easily remove it. (Even from your local repo, if necessary remove the relevant blob hash)

Easy to say but a chinese dev went to prison for pushing DJi's secret crypto key to github

Once I learned about the reflog I got a lot more adventurous with git. Now I’m the “git expert” in my team.

> No commits are harmed in the operation of `git rebase`. All the commits you had in the repo before the rebase are still in the repo.

They are still in the repo, but if no treeish item (eg. a branch) points to them, then they'll eventually get garbage collected.

Still, glad to see people are trying to elucidate git rebase. A small subset of its functionality is fundamental part of my workflow and I wouldn't know how I'd use Git without rebasing.

git-gc will also preserve objects which are referred to in reflogs - it doesn't just have to be tree-ish. From the man page:

>git gc tries very hard not to delete objects that are referenced anywhere in your repository. In particular, it will keep not only objects referenced by your current set of branches and tags, but also objects referenced by the index, remote-tracking branches, refs saved by git filter-branch in refs/original/, or reflogs (which may reference commits in branches that were later amended or rewound). If you are expecting some objects to be deleted and they aren’t, check all of those locations and decide whether it makes sense in your case to remove those references.

I didn’t know that! Thanks so much. I was always a bit nervous about things in my reflog being GC’d.

I really don't understand why git doesn't create a tag when you rebase in case things go wrong, or more generally when doing potentially gc-able actions. Pretending the average user will know how to get things back to how they are is silly.

This is technically true, and a common reposte when talking about preservation of history edits.

Unfortunately, the reflog is confusing and hard to use correctly in the case of an interactive rebase with multiple steps. It is hard to figure out exactly how far back you need to go in the reflog to get to moment before the rebase started if you want to start over. It also just so happens that its when an interactive rebase goes awry that I really want to reach for the reflog to fix the damage.

HEAD and the branch have separate reflogs. Each step of an interactive rebase adds a separate entry to HEAD's reflog, but the branch's reflog only ever gets a single new entry when the rebase is complete. So you can run e.g. `git log -g master` and skip the rebase intermediate steps.

It is rather unfortunate that there is no convenient documented shorthand for "show me the reflog of the current branch" (`git log -g` gives you HEAD's reflog). That said, after a bunch of experimentation, it seems like `git log -g '@{0}'` will give you the reflog for the current branch. Apparently this works because e.g. `git log -g '@{2}'` gives you the reflog for the current branch skipping the first 2 elements.

Thanks for pointing this puts I didn’t realize/notice this until recently. And it makes a lot more sense than having one reflog. I would have liked to have known sooner.

> Unfortunately, the reflog is confusing and hard to use correctly in the case of an interactive rebase with multiple steps. It is hard to figure out exactly how far back you need to go in the reflog to get to moment before the rebase started if you want to start over.

When you run git reflog after rebasing, you will see lines like the following:

  29d82ac HEAD@{6}: rebase -i (finish): returning to refs/heads/your-branch
  29d82ac HEAD@{7}: rebase -i (fixup): Commit message 2
  4f8e996 HEAD@{8}: rebase -i (pick): Commit message 2
  f3a954e HEAD@{9}: rebase -i (pick): Commit message 1
  f74b8a5 HEAD@{10}: rebase -i (start): checkout origin/master
The line listed after the one that has rebase -i (start) is the commit you were on before you started the rebase. If I screw up a rebase, then I will stash any uncommitted changes and run a git reset --hard to the commit listed below the rebase -i (start) commit I see in the reflog and start the rebase again.

Yes, git stash is awesome! I use it all the time to "snapshot" my WIP and/or to quickly get a clean working tree when taking an interrupt to work on something in a different branch. (`gs` alias for `git stash save -u`, along with `grs` for `git reflog show stash` -- which shows the commitish for each stash...)

I see the stash as kind of like a private remote, in that I can freely put whatever messy or experimental or half-baked WIP I like, gaining the benefits of a commit without inflicting it on anyone else.

SmartGit does a brilliant job of integrating the reflog and stashes into the rest of Git. The history log window has a Branches panel, which is a tree view with subtrees for your local and remote branches. Below those is another subtree of any stashes you have saved, and then a Recyclable Commits checkbox.

When you turn on Recyclable Commits, every commit in the reflog shows up in the history tree just like any other commit. You can see exactly where they diverge from your other branches and can work with them as you normally work with any commit.

Same thing for stashes: check one and it just shows up as part of the commit tree as if it were a normal commit.

I've used SmartGit for years and highly recommend it over the Git command line for the way it gives you so much more insight into the state of your repo.

This is literally what I was referring to with:

"Pretending the average user will know how to get things back to how they are is silly."

The reflog is faaar more complicated to use that any of the day-to-day git commands.

Yep, it was designed by and for linux kernel development, that average users are using it is an accident of history.

So what are the chances that a version of Git, or something like Git, will be developed that is suitable for the average user? Someone above made a comment about how easy it is to do X in Git, and then preceded to write lines of Git commands that are as arcane as anything an alchemist could come up with. If that is easy Git, I'd hate to see what hard Git looks like.

Making it could be done, Mercurial already exists for example. Perhaps a next-gen version introduced with all the lessons learned over the last decade.

Getting folks to use it would be very difficult due to network effects however.

So true. I live a mercurial life, in a git world. Thanks to hg-git, it is easy to use it and just treat the remote git repository as a black box.

After having rewritten history locally (with Mercurial this is easy, powerful, safe and with a lot of tooling available) everything you need to do is doing an hg push --force.

For one, hg histedit with its curses interface (default since 4.9) is sweet.

Don't hope for git to become something else. Something else will be something else.

In reality, git is actually far from ideal tool, with its own weak points and use-case scenarios which it simply not or badly supports. So it's never "just you" don't feel bad that it's "hard." On top of this, even the scenarios that it supposedly "good" supports demand sometimes totally "illogical" combination of the names and parameters.

git is used in spite of its flaws for different reasons. Some actions are really very fast, faster than by the competition. Sometimes that is a reason enough. Another is -- we have to use what our colleagues use. Even another: once you become familiar with it, even if you were aware of the weirdness, it can stop annoying you. Still to be able to realistically compare it with something else, you have to at least try it. And that something else too.

Something like Darcs is probably going to be the next generation. The nice thing about Darcs is that it records patches in an order independent fashion. This means that you can reorder your commits without penalty. This allows you to remove pretty much all problems requiring ninja-like skills to fix in Git. Darcs, has performance problems on merges, though (as a result of its approach). However, I remember a while ago about someone saying they found a solution to the problem. I think they meant to write a new system, but I can't for the life of me remember what it was called.

Anyway, once you get rid of the actual complexity in git, it's an easy step to work on the added complexity to the UI.

Pijul (https://pijul.org/) is based on a categorical theory of patches (https://arxiv.org/abs/1311.3903). It is similar to Darcs but written in Rust. They claim that Pijul has solved the exponential merge problem. The docs, FAQ, and blogs, in particular the last one, are interesting readings.

Git is really a toolkit for version control. Linus (or some other Git proponents?) distinguishes between "plumbing" and "porcelain": the infrastructure and the UI.

Linus wouldn't claim to be a brilliant designer of user interfaces. It's totally conceivable that somebody could come along and develop a new way of talking about Git's functionality, implemented by a new "porcelain". Changing the vocabulary, creating a more comprehensible map of the internal logic of the thing...

Unfortunately, none of the porcelains caught on, because all of the power users use plain git.

Except those of us using magit instead ;)

Who knows what the future holds. Once upon a time all the power users used assembly language.

feature-branch@{1} is the branch prior to the rebase.


Create a backup branch before:

    git branch local/foo
If you mess up too hard, check it out again.

> They are still in the repo, but if no treeish item (eg. a branch) points to them, then they'll eventually get garbage collected.

Why else are you going to go through the trouble of rebasing master if this isn't the goal you're shooting for? I'm a big proponent of commit history hygiene but even I can't defend rebasing master except for egregious things.

I think the only time I rebased master except for this was to fix a poorly executed mass file rename that broke git annotate.

I'd suggest creating the branch before the rebase:

    $ git co feature-branch
    $ git branch before-rebase-feature-branch
    $ git rebase develop

Worthwhile if you anticipate something going wrong, but usually things are just fine or a `git rebase --abort` will get you back to a safe place (if you are using an interactive rebase).

Or git `reset --hard ORIG_HEAD`

> HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree. FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched from a remote repository with your last git fetch invocation. ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD in a drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their operation, so that you can easily change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran them.


> No commits are harmed in the operation of `git rebase`. All the commits you had in the repo before the rebase are still in the repo.

The same changes are still in the repo (edit: I should have said branch here), but not the same commits, because the parents and children change and therefore the hash of the commits.

It is very important to be aware that the history is changed, because the previous history can not be without issues merged with the new one, which is the main pain point and the most problems that arise from a rebase.

No, gwright is correct, and my guide fails to capture the nuance of this detail.

Each commit has a link to its parent, and represents the tip of a linked list. .git/objects is a heap of all commits (and other objects), and .git/refs contains a list commit IDs that define each head (e.g. master). git rebase will often introduce new versions of a commit to the heap and update the heads to reference new histories, but the old commits stick around and can be accessed through the reflog - with their full original history intact.

It is right that the previous commits are still there in the repo, but from the point of git they are garbage now and going to be removed. The point are the commits reachable now from the branch.

What’s the matter with reachable and unreachable commits? Commits no longer needed should be unreachable and cleaned eventually, that’s a feature. Git is fantastic about keeping the unreachable commits for long enough that should I actually need them for any reason, they’re usually there. The default is 90 days. The number of times I need to dig into the reflog for any reason is very low, and always because I made a mistake. The number of times I’ve lost a commit irrevocably because it was cleaned before I needed it is 0.

> The number of times I need to dig into the reflog for any reason is very low, and always because I made a mistake.

A good UI should allow you to recover from mistakes. Like the trashcan vs rm example everyone is using.

It's good that git doesn't permanently delete stuff, it's bad that you need to be a relative expert to know that. If git branch showed rebased branches and told you they would disappear in x days then beginners might feel less fear and embrace the power of git faster.

This is a little hyperbolic though, because git does have UI above the reflog designed for catching the most common mistakes. The reflog is a powertool, it is not the default UI, and most people never need to look at the reflog.

git rebase has an "abort" feature when you need to redo it. git has tag & branch & stash features if you want to save what you're doing before you rebase. The problem with keeping and showing rebased branches are that 1- you don't need them after the rebase is successful. You only need them when the rebase is going badly, and 2- you'd have a lot of unnecessary noise pile up. I often rebase multiple times before every push. I don't want to see them all, you probably don't either.

That said, I fully agree that git's UI could be better and help beginners feel less fear!

git-gc will save stuff in your reflogs. It works pretty hard to avoid removing objects which are referenced by anything at all.

Ah ok, the point about reflog makes sense. Thanks!

the old commits stick around

They kinda are, but that's like saying that deleted files are not deleted, but stick around for a while.

While technically true, for most practical purposes _rm <file>_ deletes the file. The fact that each and every "git 101" manual has to explain how to recover deleted commits, means something is wrong.

It's like saying: "Here's the key, and in case it doesn't work there's a pry bar in the garage". This is usually a pretty good indicator that the lock is broken.

It’s more like saying that files in the trash or recycle bin aren’t really deleted. It’s true, they’re still there.

Someone who has never done it before won’t know how to retrieve them, but that’s hardly a surprise.

Comparing lost commits to rm isn’t a good analogy.

Git has a very good safety net when you know how to use it. The problem is knowing how to use it, not that it’s not there.

It’s a legitimate point that git’s UI sucks, that’s what’s wrong, and everyone agrees. But learn how to use the reflog and you will see the light!

Git has very good safety even if you don’t know how to use it, provided you commit when you want something to be saved and you don’t rm the whole repo at the first sign of trouble.

I think my issue is that most people should not even know how this safety net works. But every other question about git on stack exchange seems to be "how do I recover from a failed rebase".

You have your wish: most people already don't even know how the safety net works. :P The existence of questions on a site designed to ask questions is not any indicator of how often rebase causes problems. Nobody posts to stack exchange every time it works and they're not confused. Aren't the questions on stack exchange a good thing, if what you want is for people to not have to learn the safety net? Just commit and rebase until there are problems, then if you get confused, go look up the answer on stack exchange or post a question if you don't see one already. Seems like the system is working?

Just have a backup branch at the same commit as the branch you're about to rebase. It'll keep all of the pre-rebase commits on that standard branch. No need for the reflog or "trashcan" or anything weird like that.

My understanding is that the original commits will eventually be cleaned up during garbage collection if there is nothing else pointing to them. Is that correct?

Yes, came here to say the same thing.

> If you've made a mistake and in so doing lost commits which you needed, then git reflog is here to save the day.

Seeing that sentence in the article immediately makes me think the author has poor git practices or even understanding. reflog is useful at times, yes. But it is not what saves beginners from losing work while practicing their rebasing skills. What saves them is that they didn't rebase an important branch. They made a temp branch, pointing at the HEAD of their important branch perhaps, and they screwed up the temp branch.

If people would just make this one thing clearer to beginners, it would help a lot of people learn git more easily and with less fear.

I'm familiar with the reflog and use `head@{n}` on occasion, but it never occurred to me that you could use that same syntax with branches. It seems obvious in retrospect—I feel silly.

Thanks for pointing this out. I completely missed it when I read the parent comment. A neat trick.

> All the commits you had in the repo before the rebase are still in the repo.

In your local repo yes, for next 30 days. Then git will garbage collect them. But when you force push new pointers to GitHub, the GitHub repo will lose access to the unreferenced commits right away.

But of course those 30 days will give you plenty of time to go back, if you changed your mind about the rebase.

Yes, I agree. Rebase has the ability to obfuscate and rewrite commits if you so choose. Rebasing to just re-order commits is totally viable and perhaps encouraged. We did this at a previous company and it made the commit history very clean to read. However, with great power comes great responsibility in a rebase, and a junior dev can easily mess things up if you don’t educate them properly.

Nope. It doesn't 'rewrite' commits. You are using the language I was calling out as confusing.

It creates new commits and moves the branch to the tip of the new sequence of commits. No existing commits are changed or deleted.

OP's point was that rebasing cannot rewrite commits. It can only make new commits and change branch pointers to them.

I just added a mention right after the big scary warning about how everything you do in git is non-destructive. Thanks for the suggestion!

As the old Andre Previn sketch joke says: all the right commits, but not necessarily in the right order.

It's not 'editing' the raw history files, but you're still presenting a false history to your coworkers. To me there are essentially two kinds of rebases:

- Summarizing history: squashing "implemented subfeature A.A" and "implemented subfeature A.B" into "implemented feature A"

- Rewriting history: moving commits around, changing the base commit, and so on

In my opinion summarizing history is acceptable, you're making a creative decision that certain information will not be useful in the review/when trying to understand the code in the future.

Rewriting, on the other hand, is essentially lying. You're creating repository states that never existed, and which you have never tested. In the worst case, consider the following history:

    *     F: (master) Merge branch 'component2'
    | *   E: (component2) Fixed component 2's integration with 1
    | *   D: (component2) Merge branch 'master' into component2
    | |\  
    | |/  
    * |   C: (master) Refactored component 1's API
    | *   B: (component2) Implemented component 2 that depends on 1
    *     A: (master) Base
Yes, it could probably be completely linearized, but that would be a horrible idea. Commit B will leave the repository in a completely nonsensical state. Sure, you could squash in E to mitigate it (since, luckily, nothing else happened in component 2 in the meantime), but then you're still stuck explaining what will likely look like a bunch of really weird design decisions compared to if you had designed against component 1's new API immediately.

Historical context matters. If in doubt, don't rebase. Never `git pull --rebase` blindly.

It isn't lying. Advocates of rebase are always talking about a work flow where you are curating a set of proposed changes before merging into your "public" branches (.e.g, development or master).

No one is advocating that you use rebase on your public branches or basically any branch that has been "published". We are talking about feature branches or spikes or branches that exist just on one developer's machine.

You're lying about the path that you took to get to that point, and you're creating a lot of (public) nonsense commits on the way there (unless you're very careful, and/or overly squash-happy).

Whether you've published the true history earlier is irrelevant to that discussion.

Let me try again. I'm advocating that you use rebase to improve the quality of your changes that will be reviewed before merging or even before being reviewed at all.

If I make three commits and then realize that I should have included something in the first commit, I use rebase to create a new sequence of three commits that has the corrected version of the first commit. I haven't shared those commits with anyone, this is just work that I've done locally.

Are you seriously advocating that creating a pull request with: (A, B, C, A-fixup) is better than using rebase and then creating a pull request with: (better-A, B, C)?

You think that second case is "lying" because I didn't show the intermediate step that included the mistake?

Yes, it is lying.

You can mitigate most of the damage if it is convincing enough (for example, go through B' and C' and make sure everything still makes sense at each point), but realistically nobody is going to do that, because it's pretty inefficient way to spend your time. And even then, you're still removing context (unless you're just fixing a typo).

> I'm advocating that you use rebase to improve the quality of your changes that will be reviewed before merging or even before being reviewed at all.

That was clear from the start. But the fact that X breaks Y doesn't imply that Y is a good idea when X doesn't apply.

Throwing the word "lying" into an argument like this counts as name-calling and flamebait in the sense that the site guidelines use these terms. It leads to distracting, shallow, and therefore more boring conversation. Would you mind reviewing the rules and please not do that? Let's stay focused on exchanging what we're curious about.


I really don't understand why you are choosing to use the word "lying".

Us mere humans make mistakes all the time. Typos, omissions, false starts, and so on. What is the value of throwing that raw set of events at a reviewer or complicating the understanding of the changes when viewed in retrospect from the future? What is the reason you call curating the work into a more polished form "lying"? Why do you think the time spent being intentional about changes isn't valuable when compared to the time spent by a reviewer (or your future self) to sort through the flotsam and jetsam of your intermediate work?

But reviewers in most Git workflows mainly look at PRs. Then if as a reviewer you want to see how the sausage was made, you can zoom in on the commits, including all the messy reality of how the work was done. In some circumstances you might of course want to hide this, but in an open and safe collegial environment this lets the reviewer understand your thought and work process.

The reviewer also won't see all the things the author tried without ever committing these states. They don't need to see all the messy steps, or they would have needed to look over the authors shoulder all the time.

I rather review the final patch series with changes in logical order and not necessarily in the order the code was written or with intermediate work that was later reverted or changed again. I do look at commits, because also every commit message counts and is supposed to explain the individual change.

Sure, it's not a perfect record. But as in most things, perfect is the enemy of good.

The messy reality is valuable, when talking with your teammates about how the work was done and what kind of bumps were along the way. It's not about looking over their shoulders, it's about using data to develop together as a team, eliminating hinderances, etc - if you have the mutual trust to do that. And of course you yourself can go back and look for patterns of mistakes or problematic areas in code based on your history.

Like I said, to judge the change its, the whole PR diff is usually the most useful unit of inspection when you just want to see what happens. And if it's a big pr, you can of course always merge child PR's or branches against the big PR/branch, and look at the merge diffs.

Another formulation of the "learning as a team" idea-

The science principle of publishing your experiments, including failed ones, has the same benefits in sw engineering: others can build on your failed attempts, or save time by not replicating them.

I'm using it to differentiate between summarizing (removing steps between A and B) and modifying (introducing new steps, reordering them, or editing them).

You can do it in a way that isn't harmful (as I mentioned earlier), but good luck getting a team to actually stick to that. It also doesn't help that pretty much no tooling encourages doing it properly.

Are you lying to your co-workers when you draft an E-Mail to them, read it over, and decide to delete a paragraph or write it again from scratch? If your E-Mail client automatically saves drafts that's basically the equivalent of "rebase".

I made a typo when writing this reply, and pressed backspace to correct it. Is use of the backspace key lying?

I think you're placing a value on "history" that doesn't map onto all users of "rebase", or E-Mail client drafts. A lot of advanced users use it as the equivalent of "save" in an editor, sharing all those intermediate states is more noise than value v.s. crafting a sensible patch once you figure out what you want/what change to make.

No, if you only merge changes then you're just summarizing.

The true problems begin once you start creating commits that represent repository trees that you never tested or reviewed, for example by editing past commits (invalidating any testing you've done of commits after that point), deleting past commits (aside from squashing an unbroken sequence of commits, or deleting them if the squash would result in a no-op), reordering commits, or rebasing commits.

You're assuming that commits are tested before they're made, and that rebase invalidates this. I don't test most of my commits, just like I don't proofread an E-Mail after every word I've written. I do that later.

But yeah, the history you push to a canonical branch should generally be made up of commits that have all been tested in isolation. The rebase command doesn't make this worse, but better, e.g. with "rebase -i --exec='make test'".

I also prune out history of some false steps taken. Have you never written a program and done something like "I'll use a hash here <save><compile><test>, no actually a list makes more sense <save><compile><test> ...". Those intermediate steps are commits for a lot of advanced git users.

Sharing all your mistakes-as-you-go-along with the world doesn't help anyone, I'd typically be sending you a 100 patch merge request for some rather trivial change instead of 1-3 sensible commits.

That kind of rebase is just to refresh your work against updated masters etc. Of course you have to test against the refreshed (rebased) work again!! That doesn't mean you can't rebase. It means you can't randomly push untested work. If you know what rebase means you will understand that there are very likely new interactions with your code and you have to test your updated changeset. Exactly the same as if you merge. You have to retest the resulting tree.

A merge of a branch with N unique commits creates one new, yet-to-be-tested commit/tree. A rebase creates N. I doubt that it's common that people replay all the new history after a rebase and test each new commit/tree.

Maybe "lying" isn't the best term to use here, because it seems like you're using it to mean "not providing all information in a way that is morally bad." Of course you're not providing literally all information. Heck, I conceal a lot of information about my development process by testing and changing code before I even make a commit. But I think that's preferable to, for instance, providing a video screen capture of my entire development process for review.

Yea. Moreover, I would often ask my coworkers to rebase their code if there’s commits like “oops, missed a comma” because it distracts from the main point when you read the commit history.

> realistically nobody is going to do that, because it's pretty inefficient way to spend your time.

Of course you do! And it's not am inefficient use of your time, because it helps reviewers now, and yourself when you're bisecting later.

> And even then, you're still removing context (unless you're just fixing a typo).

You place that context in the commit message.

IME this is a very rare level of sophistication in use of rebase.

And how do you detect that you forgot / was too busy to do it, when you go back 6 months later? It's fragile, "fail-open".

You would be surprised. For example, this is a guide my colleague wrote to describe his git workflow:


I disagree.

Say upstream is at A.

I clone it in my local work-space, and make a few commits over the course of a few days. So my local is A B C

During this time other changes have been merged into upstream, so upstream looks like A D E

I now have two options. I can try to merge from upstream or rebase off of upstream. Merging introduces a messy commit history that quickly becomes difficult to follow. Rebasing removes my local commits, applies the changes in upstream, and then re-applies my local commits.

So after rebasing my local is A D E B C. There are no messy merge commits. And ideally, I can squash my local changes into a single feature commit, so upstream ends up incredibly tidy.

At no place in this process is there any dishonesty or lying. I haven't changed the history upstream, which is the source of truth. What's the issue here?

> So after rebasing my local is A D E B C.

No, your local is now A D E B' C'. Commits aren't just a diff between two tree snapshots, they are tree snapshots.

Hopefully you test and sanity check C' before submitting for review, but it's very unlikely that you're going to give B' the same treatment, making it more difficult for people to understand the history in the future (as well as breaking `git bisect`).

And even if you do, are your coworkers going to? Consistently? No CI tool that I'm aware of will enforce this for you.

> There are no messy merge commits.

No, but the underlying messy workflow is still there. You've just swept it under the rug for the sake of aesthetics, at the cost of future comprehension.

> At no place in this process is there any dishonesty or lying. I haven't changed the history upstream, which is the source of truth. What's the issue here?

Those are completely orthogonal concerns. You're presenting a false version of the repository state.

The common mantra of "don't rewrite public history" is about not creating a mess of duplicate commits, it doesn't imply that rewriting history is fine as long as it's not public.

But you lie all the time, by that definition! If I write code, make a mistake and press Ctrl+Z before committing that code, I've just "rewritten" my history without my team mates being able to tell.

Your commit history is just a somewhat arbitrary recording of your code at certain points in time that you choose. Rebasing simply makes that less arbitrary, allowing you to document the way your code is built up in a structured way. Rather than having to decide on the spot whenever a certain combination of code is a good candidate for a single, atomic commit, you can make that judgment with the benefit of hindsight.

How do you feel about deleting commits to avoid reverting them on such personal branches? Also, what about doing it to fix commit messages (maybe because they were accidentally written in a language that was not agreed on for the project)? What about splitting a commit with a generic "lots of semi-related things" commit message into multiple, more focused commits?

do you want to know all my wrong tries to make a thing work? why are you sure that all the commits i did are not nonsense? i look at the history as a way to 1) divide my work into reusable pieces of changes 2) document my changes to read for other developers.

> do you want to know all my wrong tries to make a thing work?

Yes. A failed attempt is still a useful signal that people shouldn't try to simplify back to that way in the future (and why not). It's also a useful starting point in case the reasons it failed no longer apply.

It's very rare that "failed attempts" are a useful signal. When it is the case, it's better to document it (eg. as part of the commit message, PR, or the dev documentation itself).

Commit histories littered with commits that get back-and-forth reverted are frickin unreadable though. Extremely annoying to bisect, painful to comb through when looking for changes, noisy in git blame, etc. There's a ton of downsides for what in practice is very rarely even an upside.

I agree with you, yet I don't understand why you were downvoted. I think git-rebase proponents haven't really ever worked in a professional environment particularly with several co-workers. I as a project manager would not trust a "rebaser" and I would question the time he spent to rewrite the git history. It is granted Merge and rebase need the same amount of reading the code and merging the differences. However with git-rebase there is the added cost of beautifying the history. Which means at least 2 drawbacks : one is the cost the other is more about memory. About cost, what is the point of rewriting the history when you have a (great) tool to janitor it. Then the git history automatically reflects the project history. If the git history is rewritten how would people remember the order of commits in case bugs occur. When did the bug happen ? Who should correct it ? IMHO those questions are more fundamental than a straight line of bullets in gitk.

I can't help but feel like you don't understand a work flow that utilizes rebase in a responsible way. In particular you seem to think that the rebase is going to affect the history of a released version of your software (When did the bug happen?).

Nobody is suggesting that rebase be used to change the history of a released or published branch (master, develop etc.). If that is your concern and the reason for you not trusting a "rebaser" then you are simply mistaken, you are arguing against an imaginary workflow for which no one is advocating.

Rebase should be used only to curate the commits on a feature branch and to keep the feature branch synchronized with the upstream branch.

I have a very simple solution to this: your feature is at most 1 or 2 commits (after squash) and they can be ff merge when your branch is done. Or it’s too big.

The exception to this is when a feature becomes more involved and has several logical steps, or any kind of history worth providing. This should be rare and when it happens, use merge commits to preserve history.

Not polluting the history with N trivial branches for every 1 branch that needs historical context, is a benefit of this.

In that case I assume you have also removed the backspace key from your keyboard?


Personal attacks aren't ok here, regardless of wrong or annoying another comment is. Would you mind checking out the site guidelines and taking the spirit of this site to heart? We'd be grateful, since that's the only way for it to remain interesting.


Or you could just rebase component2 when you learn that component1 has been updated on master:

    *     F: (master) Merge branch 'component2'
    | *   E: (component2) Implemented component 2 (now with updated component1)
    *     C: (master) Refactored component 1's API
    *     A: (master) Base
So we've lost B and D from your example, but who cares about those commits?

That's easy in the trivial example where nothing else happened in the meantime.

> and which you have never tested.

That's on you if you don't test every commit. I don't care if you had failing tests (or even build) when you were writing your feature. I care that every one of your patches (and thus commit) does one logical thing, and that tests passes (making bisect useful).

You want your PR commit history to tell a coherent story. No one care if a writer had 15 bad draft of their story before publishing, and the same apply here.

> you’re still presenting a false history to your coworkers [...] essentially lying

This has been a common misunderstanding of git in the past, but thankfully is fading now. I was hoping it wouldn’t come back to haunt this thread. I don’t know where the extreme and hyperbolic idea of using git the way it was designed is “lying” and creating “false history” first came from, you aren’t the first person to suggest it, but it’s neither correct nor helpful to use that kind of language. This theoretical philosophical ideal that there’s only one true history is trading away things git was specifically created to do, as well as the practicalities of real world software development, in favor of a strange unrealistic and abstract notion that once git commit has been used the commit should never be touched again.

Everyone knows and agrees that rearranging already published commits is a bad idea. Not because it’s “lying”, but because it causes problems, costs other people time, and can even inflict irreconcilable merge conflicts on their work.

Cleaning up your own commits before you push using interactive rebase is not just a good idea, it’s the way git was designed, it’s what Linus does, and it’s kind to your team. This includes reordering commits and pulling with rebase.

> Historical context matters. If in doubt, don’t rebase. Never `git pull -- rebase` blindly.

Maybe you could back up your assertion with some examples of why it always matters, and why that justifies using words like ‘never’?

Your rhetoric is ignoring the real-world fact that on a large team, the majority of commits at any given time are orthogonal to each other, and that the parent commit you end up with is completely arbitrary.

Not only do I use pull -- rebase, I always git config --global pull.rebase true, and I frequently recommend others do the same.

Having merge commits in master every single time someone checks in is incredibly noisy and it inflicts friction on the entire team to force everyone to read the noisy log. I’ve always worked on teams that decided to take the more practical approach of one-off commits should not have a merge, regardless of when they happen, to keep history cleaner, and feature branches with more than a couple of commits or by more than one person should have a merge commit, to keep the master branch from having broken commits or unfinished features and so it’s always bisectable.

Yes, good explanation of the problem.

And the cherry on top is that you can't easily tell later if you are looking at rewritten history. So if the above kind of rewriting might have happened in your project, you will essentially not be able to trust git history anymore as a record of engineering decisions.

My eyes were opened on git-rebase when I read https://matthew-brett.github.io/pydagogue/rebase_without_tea...

The full version of the command as

    $ git rebase --onto new-base start end
takes the commit range (start,end] and re-commits them on top of the new-base commit. The commit range doesn't have to be a full branch and you don't even need to be on the branch to run the command this way. It's very intuitive and I nearly always use the full version now.

I've also gotten into the habit of "pinning" my branch before I rebase so that I have it in its original form. If the branch name is my-branch, then the command

    $ git branch my-branch{-hold,}
which is a handy (bash-specific?) shortcut of

    $ git branch my-branch-hold my-branch
leaves you on my-branch and creates a new branch label called my-branch-hold that points to the same place.

EDIT: clarification of pre-rebase branching

I’ll sometimes do the same for a rebase that looks like it will be hairy, and I like to call the bookmarks, for example,

    git branch my-branch-mulligan

Git rebase is great. Honestly I think the argument that "if you have to push -f that means rebase is wrong" is making a huge assumption about how people use branches and why people are force pushing branches.

Force pushing branches is what you do when you have pushed a branch that you expect to modify. Why would you do that? Because that's how Github and Bitbucket have taught people to conduct PR's.

If your immediate reaction is that "rebase is bad UX", ask yourself whether or not pull requests are good UX. I honestly think rebase is great, but that pull requests are extremely bad UX, and the UX blame is misplaced on rebase when where it really belongs is on pull requests.

> Force pushing branches is what you do when you have pushed a branch that you expect to modify. Why would you do that? Because that's how Github and Bitbucket have taught people to conduct PR's.

I thought that Github and Bitbucket encouraged people to push up additional commits to fix issues in their PR. So, a typical PR will end up with a commit history like:

  Implement a feature method
  Add calls to new feature method
  Update to version 1.2.3
  fixing missing semi-colon
  addressed comments
  one more thing
  now its working
People who force-push are the ones who are trying to keep a clean commit history (meaning you don't have those extra 4 commits). So, your point about a PR being bad UX versus a rebase is correct, but not for the reason you state.

Almost no projects I've worked on that use GitHub ask people to push fixup commits. In fact, maintainers (like me) often have to ask people to squash their commits into reasonable chunks.

It's not the project that asks people to push fixups, it's that GitHub, as opposed to e.g. Gerrit, makes it hard to see what changed (how your comments were addressed) after a force push, so it's best that people only add commits.

Ideally they'd use git commit --fixup=<sha> -p, and then git rebase --autosquash when the maintainer approves the merge, but few people care.

(And what I'm saying isn't really accurate any more since GitHub does show force-pushes in the pull request UI these days and one can run git range-diff on that. But this wasn't possible last year.)

Usually, in my experience, you submit a pull request, add commits to fix things in the request, then when everything is copacetic, you squash the commits and submit a final pull request. You have to do a push -f to make that last request.

I see this in OSS a fair bit. But for any private repo, I see the fixup commits.

I should add that `rebase` in no way requires `push -f`, if these are private, unpublished changes.

When you have a command so confusing that you need an entire website dedicated to a single command, and still need to warn against using it, then perhaps you've got the UX wrong.

git is a version control framework more so than a version control system. It starts from simple primitives, exposes them to the user, then builds complex and powerful tools on top of them. Because git rebase gives you primitives to accomplish high-level tasks (e.g. "reorder these commits"), the learning experience is different because you have to learn the low-level details to accomplish your high-level task. However, because those low-level details are accessible to you, you are afforded a greater flexibility in inventing new high-level tasks.

But those high level tasks could also be exposed directly. There's nothing to stop there being more commands which more directly accomplish the desired tasks.

The idea that git is good because it is difficult to use is just "git snobbery", as is the idea that it must be difficult because it's a DVCS.

There's nothing to stop git having two levels of the API, one exposed for tools to build off of with the full complexity and another for every day use.

Git does have two levels of the API explicitly, one for tools (“plumbing”) and one for every day use (“porcelain”).

I don’t think the argument is that the difficulty is a virtue, nobody is trying to be snobby, so try to avoid jumping to that conclusion.

Git just has some inherent complexity. Git does have a steep learning curve that is the root of a UX problem. But it’s not clear what better abstractions there are or how to simplify git. Lots of people have tried to make a higher level porcelain, and the issue isn’t going away. You are welcome to suggest & create a git wrapper that makes it simpler and less dangerous.

Perforce is easier to learn, so you might try using that instead. I use both and I’m becoming more and more frustrated with Perforce because git is so much more flexible and safer and easier to use once you learn how to use git.

The main problem with git is that it tries to be two things at once: a change management system and a version control system.

For the former you want flexible history, distributed repos and freedom to do whatever you want.

For the latter the history should be sacrosanct and the repository is better be more or less centralized.

git tries to sit on both chairs and therefore has to adapt a quite awkward position.

I totally don’t understand your implied semantic difference between “change management” and “version control”. Those sound like exactly the same thing to me. ;)

I also don’t understand your larger point about git and what the problem is. For almost everyone using git, the pushed history is sacrosanct, and the main repo is centralized. The main workflow for rebase is to clean up before making commits public.

For me "change management" is akin to IntelliJ's shelf: you can have a bunch of changes, you can combine them in lists, you can shuffle the changes between these lists and selectively apply them. Editing is the king. I should totally be able to destroy five years of my work without a way to recover.

"Version control" is a log. I should be able to return to any point in history at any time. I should not be able to destroy this history no matter what I do. The history should be backed up in a remote location.

With git every once in a while these two come into conflict: I'm using my branch as a change management system and then someone else pulls that branch and makes a couple of changes on it. Then I force push and the mess begins.

Regarding centralized repository: say, I have two working copies. In goode olde subversion there was the "master" version in trunk and two local versions, one per working copy. Three versions altogether. Pretty clear which is which.

Now in git I have:

- master in origin repo

- origin/master in wc1

- master in wc1

- actual file in wc1

- all the same in wc2

Seven potentially different versions of the same exact file. That's even without mentioning a stash.

Rebase is a way to provide what you're calling "change management", and so is git stash. The rest of git is what you're calling "version control". I don't see any conflict. I don't love trying to differentiate those terms either, FWIW. Managing changes and controlling versions are "literally" the same thing.

> Then I force push and the mess begins.

That is your problem right there. Force pushing over published history should always be avoided. Don't do that, it is very unfriendly to others you work with. Just always pull, resolve any conflicts, then push your changes without forcing them. If you need to force in order to fix a serious mistake, then notify everyone first and have people hold their changes, then pull everything, resolve the problem, force push, and notify everyone again to "force pull" by first fetching, then reset their branch to what's in the origin verison; using reset --hard will let them avoid having any conflicts after you force pushed. Consider carefully whether the mistake even warrants a force push, or if you can make do with new commits on top that fix the bad ones.

> Regarding centralized repository [...] Seven potentially different versions of the same exact file.

You're conflating multiple different topics. The existence of multiple copies of a file isn't related to which repo is the central one, nor is it some kind of problem.

The origin repo is your central repo. Your downstream repo has to copy from the upstream/central repo if you even want to work on the code. What you called "copies" in origin/master and master are branches, not copies of the file. The only single copy on your machine from your point of view is your local workspace, which expanded from your "master". stash is something that happens behind the scenes to your git database, it's not making more working copies. wc2 is another repo or computer, it's not even relevant. None of these copies you're talking about are visible to a user except the one working copy.

That is your problem right there. Force pushing over published history should always be avoided.

That is my problem right here.

There is no way to tell the difference between "I push to make something public" and "I push to back up my data in some safe location".

Well in either case, I'll just repeat: force push should always be avoided. Regular push without forcing can handle both of those scenarios, publishing commits to your team, and also backing up data to a safe location.

That said, making backup data in a safe location isn't what git was really made for. If you really don't want history to be there, you can use cp or rsync, or you can git clone -depth 0 from the backup machine, or just use backup software. There's "bup" which is a backup tool based on git...

This is the same argument that suggests Squarespace is better than HTML & CSS. Maybe true for some people - but not the typical HN audience, I imagine. You use git all day, every day. It's worth it to learn it inside and out, and the design assumes users who are willing to make that investment. If you assume everyone learns the primitives, then the rest of git's design makes sense as an organic evolution of that.

And for anyone who doesn't know the primitives, I posted a brief summary on Mastodon the other day:


Also recommend Pro Git's chapter on git internals.

Nah. It's a UI issue. Even when you know the primitives, the counterintuitive randomness of what is a command vs. what is a switch on a different command vs. something that can be done in three different ways using different combinations of commands and switches makes it a clusterfuck to interface with until you memorize everything. Contrast to something like mercurial where once you know the concept, you either know how to do it, or you know the command that will give you the help for how to do it. It's generally not going to be some switch on an unrelated command because the UI was actually designed and not simply cobbled together.

This isn't HTML & CSS vs squarespace, and to butcher the analogy this is more like CSS vs Sass/SCSS. CSS is the internal API which does everything but Sass is an API which exposes that in a much more beautiful way.

I don't need to know how postgres does paging, indexing, tree diffs, etc to be able to write good SQL.

I don't need to know how typescript compiles to javascript to use typescipt.

I don't need to know how my engine works to drive my car.

I use all of those every day.

But the suggestion here is that as every day users of git should learn git internals to be able to use the tool better.

That's a tooling failure. It's not a failure of the git design or git fundamentals, it's a failure of the git cli.

Mercurial's interface is just fine, and these days it's just as powerful as Git.

Things could be better. There's an existence proof. It just lost the mindshare war and so now we're stuck with Git, which I still have to look up basic syntax for because its command set is contradictory and makes no sense. (Is it git <x>? git <y> --x? git <z> <a-b>? Something else entirely? Who knows!)

I used to agree with this, now I've stopped worrying. Because if git is the worst part of your workflow, that's a great problem to have. But at many places, git is the best part.

(I've also had to work with various IBM CVS, and they are universally garbage. When I get frustrated at git, all I have to do is think back to those.)

So yes, Mercurial is better, but is it worth the effort? Not in my experience.

I know it's popular to shit on anything that isn't git these days, but you mentioned IBM CVS. I've used a couple of them, but primarily RTC (Rational Team Concert). I know that was an IBM acquisition and not a home-grown solution (what wasn't?). I personally prefer some features of RTC over how to do the equivalent in git. Namely, being able to move change sets (think commits) around freely, not having to deal with rebasing/merging into whatever branch you want to put it in/on. I also think there's something to be said for a CVS system that is built for teams that work together daily, compared to a system that's built for a "remote contributor" model.

That being said, I use git daily and find that I'm able to do everything I want and more, so I'm not looking to make a switch. Unfortunately, most people don't care to learn how to use git beyond "checkout, commit, push, call for help".

There was one before RTC, called CMVC, which was truly awful, especially using after 2010 felt like an insult to developer productivity.

I forget all the reasons why RTC isn't great, but the main one: if the server goes down, you're screwed. This happened several times, and we basically went to the pub instead of working. Slow to check out. Streams sucked compared to branches (especially when the server admin restricted creation of streams, meaning you simply could not branch at all if I'm remembering), and the capability to stash changes/switch branches to work on different work items if one was blocked was also more cumbersome. Code review was terrible.

A centralised paradigm does simplify things a lot mentally, but the workflow suffers IMO.

You certainly make some good points about the downsides of RTC. RTC's streams are often compared to git's branches because they're the closest construct, but they are definitely very different and have pretty minimal overlap, considering they're basically the parallel construct. IMO stashing changes was not bad (suspending change sets, I believe it was called), but perhaps I was mostly doing that within 1 stream and not between streams. I agree that code review was not great, though I'm not a _huge_ fan of GitHub's comment/PR review mechanism either. I'm not aware of code reviewing built in to git itself, though I could be totally missing it.

> I'm not aware of code reviewing built in to git itself

I guess you can pull a branch or email a patch and diff it with the diff tool of your choice.

There's a few options for gir review UIs, e.g. Gerrit or GitLab. Kind of unix-y, just have the VCS be a good VCS.

nitpick, but I think "existence proof" is the opposite of what you meant (that Mercurial is a living proof that things can be better):

> a constructive proof is a method of proof that demonstrates the existence of a mathematical object by creating [...] the object.

> This is in contrast to [an existence proof], which proves the existence of a particular kind of object without providing an example.


> The idea that git is good because it is difficult to use

Git is good because it is extremely elegantly designed. There are blobs, trees, commits, and refs. When you understand them, you understand pretty much everything about git.

And yes, the interface is a mess.



       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
       ("plumbing") commands.

Being that rebase is under "porcelain", would you agree the UI ought to be improved?

I'm not sure if I do, but that's the conclusion the man page + your comment would seem to support.

It's not an interface problem at all. "git rebase", with no arguments, does almost exactly what a typical user wants almost all the time. Probably 80% of the remaining cases are handled by "git rebase $BRANCH".

But once outside that world, the user if faced with the problem that "rebase" is just a special case of "merge" and shared all the complexities and edge cases. And that's hard for fundamental reasons. Git has tools for this too, but their interface shares the complexity of the problem domain.

"git rebase" does exactly what you want, except when it's totally unrelated to what you want because what you actually want is "git rebase -i HEAD~3" which does something basically completely different (from a users point of view).

This is probably where I foul up.

My last few workplaces were either not git, or relied on git pull w/o rebase. My current workplace has rebase as part of their flow, and I find that, like, 60% of my PRs require force push, which bothers me greatly. Everyone else just shrugs and considers it part of business, but I know what I WANT to do should be nicely aligned and not encounter that problem.

Unfortunately, every explanation I'm like "yes, yes, branching trees, I get it..." and then I'm suddenly in the "...and it says things are different and I don't know why". And because this always happens when I'm trying to get some fix in, I never have the time to study it to figure out what is really happening. It's just "--force and promise myself the next time will be different".

> My current workplace has rebase as part of their flow

Not really sure what that means as rebase can be used in multiple ways, but you might want to try using:

`--force-with-lease` instead of `--force`

> This option allows one to force push without the risk of unintentionally overwriting someone else’s work


That does sound like they're doing it wrong. Could you give an example?

> Could you give an example?

To the degree I understand it, sure:

We have master branch A

I create a feature branch B

Both get updates. Someone will do a rebase of B to the most-recent A and push that. (In my previous workplaces they would have just pulled the most recent A)

Here's where the confusion comes in: If I get the updated B but A has updated again, I cannot pull A nor rebase to A and successfully push the result without forcing. IIRC, on push it complains that my local branch is not up to date, but if I pull it will tell me I am up to date.

At least, that's what I think is the timing - since this involves multiple people I'm uncertain of what exactly occurs and the order, nor why problems are inconsistent. We don't have that many feature branches that have multiple people contributing AND requiring updates from the master branch, but it happens often enough.

> which does something basically completely different (from a users point of view).

The only difference is that one's interactive and the other isn't. If you use `-i` and simply exit out of the editor, the effect is completely the same as not having used `-i`, isn't it? I think moving `rebase -i` to a completely new command could potentially make things more confusing. That new command would be an extension of `rebase` and so could be used interchangeably.

The other difference is that I'm "rebasing" onto an ancestor of the current head, as in I'm not really changing base at all.

A hypothetical new command would be a simpler version of "rebase" that comes with the restriction described above, that it's not actually changing base.

> The other difference is that I'm "rebasing" onto an ancestor of the current head, as in I'm not really changing base at all.

`rebase -i` doesn't restrict that, does it? There may be people whose workflow includes things like `git rebase -i --onto foo bar baz`. That you don't use it is another matter.

> A hypothetical new command would be a simpler version of "rebase" that comes with the restriction described above, that it's not actually changing base.

You want to remove features from git? Why?

If you didn't mean to say that instead of having `rebase -i` we should only have this hypothetical command, then you can do:

  git config --global alias.edit-history 'rebase -i'
Though you may want to add to that to make it impossible to use edit-history to rebase, too. I mean, you did say you wanted the restriction, right?

No, rebase -i doesn't, that's why I said `rebase -i HEAD~x` in my original comment and not just `rebase -i`. `rebase -i` should of course continue to exist.

Your right when you say I don't "just" want to introduce an alias because I want to restrict the arguments.

The other issue with that solution is I don't just want a solution for me. I know how this works now, I've already memorized the magic incantation to edit history and later spent the time to understand why the command does what it does (the same goes for basically all the other common git commands). What I want is a solution that works for everyone, out of the box, so we can stop wasting time teaching git internals.

OK... And what is your suggestion for a proper and obvious interface choice for that?

FWIW: the line noise you typed means "Make a list of the changes since three commits ago, let the user edit the list, then apply them". Other than -i step and the length of the list, this is basically a noop -- you're rebasing on an ancestor of HEAD! I mean, yeah, git lets you do that, but I don't know why you expect the syntax for irrelevant nonsense to be simple.

But let's humor you and try to use that syntax for something real. If you typed "my_version_tag~3" it might make sense -- you want to back up to the commit before whatever automation might have added for a release and put your current work on top of the earlier tree as if they had been developed as part of the release. And you have some junk in your current tree you don't want to expose to the customer to whom you are going to hand this test tree, so you want to remove it interactively.

That... sounds like a useful trick. But it's complicated. And the syntax is complicated. So what's a good syntax for the previous paragraph's action?

How about, `git edit-history 3`? Just stop calling it rebase.

The "line noise" I typed is an extremely common command that is used to clean up commit history, e.g. squash all your "WIP" commits into a few nice ones. Yes the idea of rebasing onto the same branch is just weird, that's kinda my point, since it's the only way to edit history that git supports (as far as I, or anyone I've ever seen answer a question about how to do this knows).

You mean like mercurial histedit <revision>?

Also, emacs magit makes this even easier, if you don't mind a more GUI-like interface.

So... your whole complaint is that people use "rebase" as a trick for "edit history". You'd be fine if they just put a wrapper into the project for that? Seems like not much of a complaint to me. Why not just submit it yourself?

Git doesn't have "reorder patches" feature. Maybe it should. But the fact that its rebase tool can be abused to do this doesn't say anything about the interface value of "git rebase".

Honestly, it seems like the root cause here is that you don't actually do branch rebasing very often, don't see the value of having a rebase tool in the tree, and are just complaining that the trick you do need isn't well supported by the rebase tool you don't use or understand.

No, I use rebase for "branch rebasing" (i.e. actual rebasing) too. I have no clue how you got that out of my comments.

My complaint is that git's UI is terrible to teach people, to understand it you have to understand way too many internal details of git.

Yes, making a wrapper for `git rebase -i HEAD~x` (and `git rebase -i <other thing that refers to a commit above head>`) would satisfy this UI nit. It wouldn't satisfy all UI nits, this is just a relevant example.

As for why not submit it myself, I'm sure I'm not the first person to complain about this, drive-by UI changes to a project are the absolute best way to get a ridiculous inconsistent UI. I don't submit it myself because I'm not willing to commit the time to become a core maintainer of git, and without being a core maintainer I don't feel right trying to push UI changes in.

> Git doesn't have "reorder patches" feature.

Huh? That is exactly what git rebase -i is. This isn't some kind of "abuse" or "trick", this is precisely what interactive rebase was designed for. What is making you think that rebase is only to be used when merging two different branches?

Git is a complex system, of necessity, and rebase is a flexible, powerful tool. Some of the things it can do are common parts of the normal work flow. Others are only for serious situations.

I generally prefer transparent systems to those that try to figure out what I really want to do.

The warning regarding "public, shared, or stable branches" is always warranted, but I think those warnings end up reverberating where they needn't. Before interacting with anything public or shared — when working solo or locally — `rebase` can be hugely helpful. When starting out with something complicated, I often make separate commits for different files or steps; using rebase to reorder commits or amend can make turning your first steps into a viable change much easier, and can help with merge conflicts down the line. I also find it helpful for large commit messages; rather than needing to write everything at once, making liberal use of `fixup` or `squash` can keep disparate thoughts or bug fixes manageable.

I'd never use it on a public or shared branch, but `rebase --interactive` and `--exec` are some of my most-mused git aliases.

I'd use rebase --interactive quite aggressively on a public branch when it's a feature branch that's not yet been merged. As I'm the only owner of it, the way I see it I owe no guarantees to anyone. You're welcome to watch it, but it's work in progress in every aspect.

Github and refined-github[1] make it easier, by keeping track of changes from a `push -f` and having merge/squash/rebase options on merging, but I know of large projects with an explicit "no rebasing" rule as it can get confusing for reviewers. I'd say it depends on the project, maintainers, and general workflow. Which is good!

1: https://github.com/sindresorhus/refined-github

My team does this for branches during the code review process all the time, and it works great.

rebasing a shared branch is fine, if the audience who needs to know about it is within arms length (or the remote chat equivalent). Rebasing a public branch that's used by hundreds requires special notification tooling and email templates and elaborate public shaming rituals, which people are happy to come up with but seems unnecessary in my opinion if you think twice before force pushing

also: 'git push --force-with-lease' (worth repeating)

I use `--force-with-lease` instead of `--force` or `-f` because it ensures that if someone happened to push before me it would fail and I could manage that manually. Even on branches that no one "should" be touching other than me, it seems safer to type the extra characters `-` and `orce-with-lease` around the `-f`.

This was new to me, and makes me feel better about force pushing. However, while googling to find out if I could set this as the default behaviour I found an Stack Overflow answer that as well as saying "no" points out a very git-like gotcha:


Apparently it will think you know about the changes if you've fetched them, even if you've not merged them. And some systems auto fetch in the background.

The 'push -f' suggestion could instead recommend 'push --force-with-lease' to be less error prone in case one is accidentally pushing to a concurrently modified branch.

Also, unless the diagram is confusing with the alignment, the "rebase to rebase" example seems to be implicitly assuming --onto, because the last common ancestor of 'master' and 'feature-2' includes 2 commits on that branch: the first of 'feature-1' and then the one that is only on 'feature-2'.

I've heard this before, but I felt that `--force-with-lease` requires a lengthier explanation in an an already intimidating article, is harder to type, and generally isn't useful for users of the Sourcehut workflow. It's definitely a useful tool, though. Maybe I should add a footnote.

I disagree, I'd suggest just including the plain `--force-with-lease` since it's generally a tool that stops breaking stuff to happen. In particular, the assumption that your branch isn't publicly used is usually wrong if `--force-with-lease` fails.

I do sympathise, it's hard to keep it at a high level, but many people just copy what they see.

One thing I do in our team is provide git novices with some useful aliases, one of them being `fpush = push --force-with-lease`. It's saved a few people losing work along the years

I don't get the "extra letters" argument as a Computer Scientist. Most of my time is spent figuring out what I'm going to do before I type anything, whether that's research, staring at code for hours to see how it works, or something else. I could type 3x as many characters each day and would probably only work an extra 10 minutes per day. Maybe I'm the exception, but I don't like brevity for brevity sake.

You could also consider it "harder to remember".

I normally use "git push --fo<TAB>" or "git push --fo<UP ARROW>" in zsh, but after seeing the switch option "--force-with-lease" pop up each time I've memorized it now. I let my CLI do the work for me most of the time, but when I can't there's always "man COMMAND". After doing anything a bunch of times, you remember it.

I just made a git alias `fpush` that does --force-with-lease

I've you use rebase to rewrite history a lot I have found/developed a couple helpful commands (tested & working on Linux bash).

Put those in your ~/.gitconfig:

   fu = "!f() { local msg=\"fixup! $(git log --oneline -n1 | cut -d ' ' -f2-)\"; git commit -am \"${msg}\" && git rebase -i --autosquash HEAD~2; }; f"
   fuc = "!f() { local msg=\"$(git log --oneline -n1 | cut -d ' ' -f2-)\"; if [[ \"${msg}\" != "fixup!"* ]]; then msg=\"fixup! ${msg}\"; fi; git commit -am \"${msg}\"; }; f"
   xx = "!f() { git reset --hard && git clean -f -d; }; f"
From now on:

git fu = (git fix up) combines last commit and all staged changes into one commit with the last commit message

git fuc = (git fix up comment) commits all staged changes as a new commit with the last commit message, but prefixed with "fixup!". Except if the last commit message is already prefixed with "fixup!". Now you can work on the same thing but commit incremental steps. In the end you just do: git rebase -i master (or similar) and they will be all in one commit.

git xx = get rid off all unstaged/uncommited changes in current directory. Very destructive, very useful.

Last but not least. If you have a lot of "fixup!" or "squash!" commits and need to interactively rebase without autosquashing them do:

git rebase --no-autosquash -i master

Weird they don't talk of the `git commit --fixup=` command. And then `--autosquash` when rebasing.

You can achieve the same thing by just titling the commit:

  fixup! Exact title of commit
We actually use that workflow during PR reviews on Github. That is, someone comments on a PR and the person who opened the PR will make a fixup commit with the appropriate title and reply to the comment stating that it was addressed and link the fixup commit by its abbreviated sha1 value.

At the end of the PR review, the person who will merge the PR will run:

  git fetch origin
  git rebase -i --autosquash origin/master
  git diff @{u}..
This basically updates the remote tracking branches (including origin/master), rebases the feature branch on top of the remote tracking branch for master, and then checks if any changes were introduced in the rebase process by running a diff against the remote tracking branch.

If there is no diff or the diff only shows changes made on the upstream master branch since the feature branch was created, then they can run:

  git push -f origin feature-branch-name
and then merge the PR.

Also no mention of `--onto` to e.g. move a bunch of commits from one branch to an other.

I don't use --fixup in my own workflow, but I would be happy to accept a patch adding a note about it:


Is --fixup the same as --amend?

Conceptually, it's similar, and after git rebase --autosquash, the result is the same. But you can amend/fixup (call it whatever you want) any commit in your branch, not just the last one.

FWIW i've never really needed rebase. i am pretty happy with seeing all the commits that ever happened.

Fixing history enables powerful second level tools , such as bisect and cherry pick. Being able to pinpoint a problem to an exact commit is incredibly powerful for debugging, but it does require your commits to be as healthy as possible. If you fix a bug 10 commits after it was introduced , now the 10 commits between them are harder to work with; you always have to keep in mind that unrelated bug. And cherry picking is lovely between branches , but if a commit introduced a bug and another fixes it, now you always have to cherry pick them together. Easier to fix it and keep them atomic.

A clean git history is not a vanity project. It can be used as a tool in further code building.

Bisect still works anyway. For non-huge projects, all this obsession with tool minutiae is a waste of time.

As mentioned by another poster, the fact that a whole website is needed to explain the concept illustrates the design and UI failure.

This is an uphill battle that can't be won until a next-generation interface becomes usable by mortals. If that can't be done due to complexity, it's a lost cause for average developers paid for delivering business value.

You're talking about a UI failure but you're not actually considering the entire experience. Reading the history of the project is a big part of the experience, especially for people in team lead roles. How much of your experience is writing code versus reading code? A merge-oriented workflow often results in a history that is deeply confusing to read. The only part of the experience that you're considering is the authorship of commits, not the utilization of the project's history. I've found a rebase-oriented workflow to result in a significantly more usable repository inasmuch as the history is significantly easier to understand.

History has been useful to me at a high level, inspecting grains of sand at the beach, not so much. I can imagine it might be useful to some like linux kernel devs, but nowhere I've ever worked over a long career.

it's not "inspecting grains of sand". If you have any number of developers worth talking about, merge-oriented workflows can create incredibly unwieldly git histories very quickly. I'm talking about, at a very high level, just understanding the history of the project. If you have five feature branches going on, and your developers are all committing on a regular basis, understanding the history and cadence of your project work based on the git history is incredibly difficult when the events of the separate feature branches are all intermingled.

Your comparison is not apt in many ways. For one thing, open-source governance is extremely different than managing private codebases maintained by a single company. Nobody in open-source governance is reading git histories to figure out whether employees are struggling, who is performing, who is not performing, who is overworking, where the project is, whether or not people are duplicating their efforts, how to report progress to clients, etc. And besides, the Linux kernel uses an email-based, merge-oriented workflow anyway. Kernel patches are submitted via email. That's not at all representative of any company that I have ever worked for or any company that I know of. The Linux kernel history also has a network graph that is literally unviewable on Github because it's so complex. Again, not representative of 95% of the work for 95% of users on 95% of projects.

It's easy enough to select commits from one user, or squash whole branches. Our devs are judged on completed features they deliver at acceptable quality, not their commit history.

I'm not saying you shouldn't care, just that I don't believe this strategy will become mainstream unless it gets much easier to understand and use.

I've heard this before, and it seems reasonable on the surface. The argument I make against this viewpoint is: "git rebase gives us powerful tools that allow us to curate a good commit history in the same way we use refactoring to uphold good software design practices."

My biggest issue with that argument though is what constitutes "good" is subjective. For me a good commit history is one that faithfully chronicles what happened.

With this in mind, acceptable curation of the history for me is squashing or separating commits and neither of these require rebase. But I wouldn't object if a colleague chose to use rebase to accomplish this.

I would, however, object to reordering commits or rebasing since this alters the chronicle.

Which I guess leaves me with my opinion on rebase:

You can, but you don't need to. If you are going to, be sure you understand what you are doing and don't alter the chronicle.

PRs are a good unit of changes for examining meaningful units of changes. No reason to lose info about how the sausage was actually made, it is also a valuable record

Most shops don't follow good software design practices, so how likely is it to get a practice one-step-removed from that, with a difficult UI to boot, adopted?

So you're saying we shouldn't argue for the adoption of good software design practices? There are a lot of software teams that do care, you know.

But this isn't that. It's one step removed. Maybe if the UI gets better. Even then an uphill battle.

Do you use feature branches? Interactive rebases are super nice for cleaning up feature branches before submitting a PR because no one wants to see your broken, non-atomic commits that have swear words in the commit message.

If you submit a PR to my project on GitHub and it consists of 20+ broken, non-atomic commits leading up to the final one, I'm going to ask you to clean them up and squash into one.

What do you use your git history for? History is either worth keeping, in which case you should maintain it like any other artifact, or it's not, in which case you should squash down master to a single commit every time you merge.

But maybe you use your history for something else that I haven't considered.

While I like the idea of rearranging commits to convey a nice (but "not how it originally happened") development sequence, I think in practice this matters less than (say) good commit messages, or the difference between merging and rebasing.

(--fixup type commits aside).

Practical benefits from not squashing history:

- Can bisect to find bug introduction.

- Can annotate/praise/blame to find who/when some change was made.

- Adam Tornhill's "Code as a Crime Scene" argues that it'd be beneficial to consume VCS history to provide health metrics on the codebase. (e.g. use VCS to check which sources have many contributors (thus potentially high defects), or check for "lost knowledge" from developers who have left).

- Can build/run an older version of the software.

But is there really a big advantage from putting time into maintaining a sequence of commits? EDIT: Ah, I see another comment point out that "maintaining a nice history" tends to mean fixing very borked commits. That makes sense. :-)

All of these advantages don't make sense if half your commits are broken versions of the software. Rebasing helps ensure that each commit is valid. That's important for the reasons you mention. Having a log of what you actually did is not important.

History is the cleaned-up story we tell after the fact.

The fact that I had a bunch of stupid typos and broken tests that I didn't realize were broken before I committed doesn't need to be in the final history. What I really want for the preserved history is the conceptual chunks of changes I made along the way.

Is this really good for your team and the project?

If you have a safe work atmosphere, and yor teammates reviewing the work can discover pitfalls in your project's workflow, you as a team can have discussions about it can improve your test stuff. And you can maybe go back through the history and see how many times this kind of normal human mistake with other branches and developers.

You can still diff through the PR as a unit before merging, without getting bogged down in low level commits.

There’s a vast middle ground between those two extremes. Some history is worth keeping, and some is not. Noise commits are of the form “forgot a closing paren,” “comment/uncomment section while debugging,” “finally got it to compile,” “checkpoint,” “fix typo,” or “going home for the day.”

Code and by extension history should be easy for humans to read. For that reason, the signal is very much worth keeping and polishing, but the noise is not. Documentation of false starts, appealing but ultimately problematic design choices, and “why” information belong in comments, commit messages, or design documents — explicit rather than implicitly littered around the history.

can't you do similar by tagging? and then later just diffing against them?

I'm not talking about squashing the feature branch. I'm talking about squashing all of master down to one commit (initial commit). If you don't take care of your history, my question is why do you keep it at all?

The reflog has saved my bacon more times than I care to admit.

I just recently(last month) broke my habit of `git checkout feature && git merge master`, replacing it with `git checkout feature && git rebase master`. Don't know why I spent so long doing it with merge, and just mentally trying to ignore the useless commit messages that resulted.

EDIT: I meant to include this link, which is a pretty brief yet thorough explanation of when/how/why to rebase: https://www.atlassian.com/git/tutorials/merging-vs-rebasing

I've a script I need to publish that does a bisect-like thing to rebase across thousands of commits quickly and ensuring that when there are conflicts you are asked to resolve them at the commit that caused them. It was original written by @vdukhovni (GitHub).

Also, I've this gist on how to think about git: https://gist.github.com/nicowilliams/a6e5c9131767364ce2f4b39...

A few markup errors:

• In a number of code blocks, angle brackets are not escaped, and so text doesn’t appear in the end result.

• `<span style="color: maroon">#include</span> &ltstdio.h&gt;` lacks the semicolon

• The paragraph immediately after the #conflicts heading lacks its <p>.

I also think it would be worthwhile mentioning in the first footnote a hazard of empty commits: that they will be dropped by default when rebasing.

I'm missing something obvious but all of the history you show is in the reverse order to default behaviour?

Am I missing a config setting you explain somewhere?

This looks normal. The order of the 'git rebase' plan shows the sequence in which commits will be applied from top to bottom.

You are probably thinking of 'git log', which uses the reverse order with the newest commit at the top.

Huh... how long have I been using git...?!

Not sure why I was convinced otherwise, must be log's behaviour as you say. Had to test to believe it!

Hm, not as far as I can tell. I use a mostly stock git config and these are copy-pasted from my terminal. Is there a particular part that looks off?

Sorry for your time, yes, you're right.

Regarding the rewriting of history: can't the git history itself be stored in git somehow, so its change over time (and e.g. by tools such as git-rebase) is properly tracked? Of course you'd need a meta tool to change the history of the history, but perhaps it's not needed?

It is: man git-reflog.

Isn't that what the reflog is?

I fear that any process that allows for a git push -f at any time is eventually going to result in someone hammering a shared/public repo when they meant to hammer their personal repo.

On sourcehut in particular, you actually hardly use `git push` in the first place, opting instead to use git send-email[0] from your local copy. The GitHub concept of "forks" is not used on sourcehut.

[0] https://git-send-email.io

Still, rebasing is an important workflow to master even if you work on GitHub or on shared branches with others. If you mess up and force push to the wrong branch, you can always go back to the reflog[1] and check out the old version, then force push it.

[1] https://git-rebase.io/#reflog

And in the immortal words of Doug Gwyn(?): "UNIX was not designed to stop its users from doing stupid things, as that would also stop them from doing clever things."

Just block force pushes to shared branches.

one of us owes the other a coke :-)

The author should add "block force push to master" to the comprehensive guide :)

disable force pushes on master

There's git push --force-with-lease, which is a safer alternative.

Can confirm.

Is there a benefit to rebasing vs merging, specifically if your flow is to squash commits before merging back into base?

Most people's aversion to rebase is an aversion to altering history. Since squashing alters history anyway, I'd argue that you might as well just use rebase when you do it.

In a rebase-oriented workflow, every commit has exactly one parent, and the commit history is entirely linearized. Merge commits have more than one parent, which means going backwards through the history means that you have to essentially navigate the branching structure to navigate the history. That makes it pretty hard to do!

A linear history is comparatively easier to reason about than a history with all of its branches. It's also, in a sense, less "true"! So it depends what you care about. Do you care about telling the exact story of everything that happened to everyone on the project, or do you care about the history of changes to the one shared copy?

Linear histories also make it easy to step backwards through the history one commit at a time. I personally just do `get checkout HEAD^` over and over, walking through the history in reverse, since most breakages are noticed within a few commits of their occurrence. I really like being able to do that. A lot of people think that's useless!

If you have one copy of the project that is considered authoritative, and all developers are synchronizing via that single authoritative copy, creating a clean and linear history is possible.

Rebasing picks commits, merging merges. Unless you're actually trying to merge two histories, I don't recommend using merge. Just think about what you're logically trying to accomplish and choose that tool.

> One of Git's core value-adds is the ability to edit history

I didn't make it past this line. git is extremely good at keeping history immutable; it's also good at creating new, alternative histories and moving between them.

Editing history in git is also well supported and very commonly used, and git does it well. It's just not for absolute beginners, and the UI is occasionally not great. If git did not want you to ever change history, filter-branch, rebase, rebase -i, fixups, squashes and a bunch of other inclusions are odd, to say the least.

My point is, git doesn't let you edit history; it lets you make branches easily & the original history remains unaltered. It's trivially easy to detect altered history, and talking about 'editing history' gives the impression that repos are vulnerable to attack.

What wording would you suggest to refer to these kinds of operations? Replacing history?

You mentioned "altered" history, which to me isn't much different from "edited" or "modified", though maybe that was just a slip and not your preference?

There does need to be some term for it. If I push a reordered branch, I clearly did more than nothing, even if we don't want to call that modifying history.

I do question if any term will work perfectly, or if there is any full solution other than one learning git to an intermediate level before discussing it. The problem, as I see it, is that there are (at least) two concepts of history, there is the DAG of commits, where ancestors are older, and there are branch-heads where you can change what they point to in unrestricted ways (pretty much the reflog). I'm not sure English has a really good metaphor that's going to capture everything.

All the git-rebase-fu I have ever needed while working with pull requests, I have found in this well written guide: https://github.com/susam/gitpr

Quoting from this document below.

  # Rebase topic branch on the main development branch (optional).
  git checkout TOPIC-BRANCH
  git rebase master

  # Edit commits, e.g., last 3 commits in topic branch (optional).
  git checkout TOPIC-BRANCH
  git rebase -i HEAD~3

  # Force push rebased/edited commits to the pull request (optional).
  git push -f origin TOPIC-BRANCH

Thank you for sharing this link. Until now, I never understood properly how rebase and fast-forward merges work. This simple note in this document made it all clear.

"Beginners to this workflow should always remember that a Git branch is not a container of commits, but rather a lightweight moving pointer that points to a commit in the commit history.

When a new commit is made in a branch, its branch pointer simply moves to point to the last commit in the branch.

A branch is merely a pointer to the tip of a series of commits. With this little thing in mind, seemingly complex operations like rebase and fast-forward merges become easy to understand and use."

Suddenly everything makes sense now!

What I really like to do is make actual fixup (or squash) commits during a code review and just push these to the branch normally. That way reviewers can easily keep up with the changes. Right at the end, the maintainer requests that the original developer does a rebase --autosquash before the branch is actually merged.

This works really well but I rarely see people talk about it. It means you don't have to use something complicated like github or gitlab to keep up with rebases. It works for everyone.

Indeed this is the whole reason I like fixups. Reviewers can actually keep up with the requested changes and know exactly which fixup-commit is related to which change.

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