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The problem with bufferbloat is not necessarily excess retransmissions or stale data (although that does happen), it is primarily that delay significantly increases in general, and that delay in competing streams or intermittently active streams is highly variable.

Traditional tcp congestion control in an environment where buffers are oversized will keep expanding the congestion window until it covers the whole buffer or the advertised receive window, even if the buffer is several seconds of packets. There may be some delay based retransmission, but traditional stacks will also adapt and assume the network changed and the peer is expected to be 8 seconds away.

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