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Mass Production of iPhones to Start in India (bloomberg.com)
245 points by sarthakjain 6 days ago | hide | past | web | favorite | 98 comments





Man, finally this came along. Apple had been negotiating for almost 3 years to setup manufacturing in India. Foxconn got a start in the outskirts of Bangalore where they manufacture iPhone SEs.

I as a customer am super glad this is coming along. Tired of paying a premium for Apple products in India. In addition to iPhones I seriously hope they start iPad manufacturing as well. IMHO iPads will probably have a better success rate in India once the prices reach parity with US.


What makes you think you will not pay a premium for iPhones in India in the future?

Apple prices based on demand curves, not supply costs.


India has a really high import tax on electronic items. Even if Apple charges a slight premium over its US prices, it's still going to be significantly cheaper than what it currently is.

For example: a 64 GB iPhone X is currently selling for around 1100 dollars.


Or they keep them the same price and make even more impressive margins. There's a reason they have 87% of the world smartphone profit share [1] and it's not because they're giving them away or passing on the cost savings to their customers.

Import duty on iPhones is 18% and 28% on iPads as of 2015. [2] Wealth inequality in India is pretty high (not as high as in the US, though, GINI 35.6 vs 40.4), and it's GDP per capita is just $1,939. Per your data, they're currently charging $1,100 which is a whopping 57% of GDP per capita.

My gut tells me reducing the price of a super-luxury good by 18% won't increase demand enough to make up for pocketing the 18% savings. That would be like pricing an iPhone at $33,000 in America. I can't imagine reducing the price to $27,000 would dramatically increase the number of buyers. Or a Rolex from $100K to $82K.

I guess we'll see!

[1] https://www.forbes.com/sites/chuckjones/2018/03/02/apple-con...

[2] https://www.labnol.org/india/custom-import-duties/19306/


Apple's market share in India is about 2% while in China it's about 7 percent. Apple's profit margin is generally about 30%.

The import tax in India is now 20%. Lets suppose Apple could increase market share in India to match that in China by reducing prices by the 20% tax, and compare that to keeping the 20% as extra profit but not increasing market share.

2% market share on 50% profit margin (existing 30% margin plus tax margin of 20%) sounds pretty good. However 30% profits on 7% market share yields more than double the overall profits.

Finally, all the arguments you make for charging more apply equally well anywhere in the world. So why doesn't Apple charge India prices everywhere in the world already? A simple argument that increased profit margin always beats higher sales implies that the perfect price point is infinity. At some point this strategy must yield diminishing returns.


> Finally, all the arguments you make for charging more apply equally well anywhere in the world. So why doesn't Apple charge India prices everywhere in the world already?

They kind of do, except they're slowly easing into it. First iPhone was 499 USD for the base model. iPhone X was 999 USD for the base model.

So over 10 years, they slowly raised their prices 100 %.


Or else the cost of producing a relatively small number of phones inside India won't be as cheap as the global HQ operation. If import taxes were the only consideration, you might expect them to open a new small factory when the extra cost of running it was about equal to the taxes.

Quite a few countries have car industries which work roughly like this -- the local VW plant will cost twice as much to run (per car) as the mothership, roughy matching a 100% import tax. (Although in reality there is often more to the story, like producing exactly one model there & exporting those for credit against imports...)


India raised it to 20% in 2018. https://money.cnn.com/2018/02/01/technology/india-iphone-tar...

Then there is 12% tax on top of that.


Sales might even reduce, because some people might not consider them luxury enough anymore.

> a 64 GB iPhone X is currently selling for around 1100 dollars.

That isn't right. The iPhone X costs (just under) 1,00,000 INR retail in India, which is over 1400 usd.

This includes taxes.

For reference: https://www.flipkart.com/mobiles/apple~brand/pr?sid=tyy,4io&


That’s what Apple usually does: they keep roughly the same digits, and change the currency. And it usually makes their products significantly more expensive outside of the US.

I live in Sweden, and the pricing will go like this:

- The US: $999

- The EU: €999

- Sweden: 9900 SEK

Depending on currency rates, it can become up to 30% more expensive.

My favorite discovery was around the time of the trashcan MacPro. It was cheaper to fly to New York, buy the Mac, and fly back than to buy one in Sweden. And you would still have money left over.


"That’s what Apple usually does: they keep roughly the same digits, and change the currency."

It makes no sense comparing US and EU prices directly, as the former are always shown without VAT (which varies state from state), and in the latter the VAT is included (which is specific to each country).

Also, price will fluctuate even across EU countries, on account of different VAT taxes in the individual member states, so that Apple "keeps the same digits" it is simply not true, as a rule:

iPhone X 64GB USA(no VAT): 999$ https://www.apple.com/us_kiosk_5000012/shop/buy-iphone/iphon...

iPhone X 64GB Italy (VAT 22%): 1189€ https://www.apple.com/it/shop/buy-iphone/iphone-xs

iPhone X 64GB Spain (VAT 21%): 1159€ https://www.apple.com/es/shop/buy-iphone/iphone-xs

The only way to compare them is to remove VAT, for example in the case of Italy:

1189/(1+0.22)= 974€ -->> 1100$ (current exchange rate).

So, there is about 10% difference, which could be (partly) accounted for due to the different warranty requirements in EU.

EDIT: Fixed math


Nice analysis. If you factor in local sales taxes in the US, that 10% difference shrinks or even disappears pretty fast.

I'm afraid 'Apple charges more abroad' is largely a fallacy. Where there is a difference, it's almost always pretty clearly due to local taxes or costs of doing business. This used to really piss off Steve J[1] because he saw it as terribly unfair.

[1] https://www.imore.com/steve-jobs-international-ipad-pricing-...


> If you factor in local sales taxes in the US, that 10% difference shrinks or even disappears pretty fast.

If you factor in sales tax on the US side, you also have to factor in VAT on the EU side, since they are equivalent.

So that 10% difference is correct.


European countries often have a minimum 5 year warranty on electronics sold to consumers, while Apple's extended warranty costs more than 10% for just two years, so that's got to be an important factor too. AppleCare is probably better than what's required by law in Europe though.

Where does law say to give 5 years warranty? I'm only aware of 2 years.

State sales tax ranges from 0-7%, with a few localities adding a few percentage points in top of it.

VAT ranges from 17% to 27%.


Sweden is still in the EU, it has higher VAT than (say) Germany as well. Also iphone x is ~865 on amazon.de[0]. You can order with within the EU (see the 1st sense again), the delivery would be around ~10€, but the price is to be a bit higher due to VAT diff. Side benefit of amazon is that you will never need to deal with apple repair services as you can send the goods back to amazon.

US price has no sale tax (which varies per state and county)

To sum up: if you find the goods at any retailer in the EU, buy them online and pay for the delivery - for light products (electronics), the shipment costs are low when not 'free'.

[0]:https://www.amazon.de/Apple-iPhone-X-64GB-Space-Grau/dp/B075...


Note that within the EU, as soon as you sell over a certain limit to a member country you have to charge VAT in the destination country. So large retailers will list prices with their respective VAT included and then re-calculate prices when you get to the payment stage (when they know which country you order from).

Sure, hence that part in my reply and mentioning higher VAT of Sweden. The amounts needed to apply per country VAT are rather low as well (like 35k, iirc).

>>but the price is to be a bit higher due to VAT diff.

Sweden has 25% which is pretty high, compared to the 19% Germany.


Canada: $1379. (On the $999-in-the-US iPhone XS.)

They do not always use the round numbers.


Seeing as most Canadians live near the US border maybe they go closer to American prices there as there's a lower barrier for Canadians to cut the fat margins by crossing the border and buying in the US?

Considering that 1000 USD is 1340 CAD, you're only saving around 40 CAD for your troubles. That doesn't seem worth it if you value your time.

yes, that was my point. If it was a larger margin like in other countries more Canadians would.

Including VAT and import duties? I find that very hard to believe.

Open the box and plug it in while in the states. Now it’s just property you brought along, not imported goods, so no duties to pay. I ain’t no lawyer though, and this is just advice I’ve been given in the past, so mileage may vary etc. (I wouldn’t be surprised if it’s entirely wrong, someone please correct me!)

I'm pretty sure that's legally fraud, but yes, there's a good chance you'd get away with it.

Unless you're buying it with an explicit purpose to sell it off and avoid the import taxes that way it's absolutely not fraud. You are legally allowed to buy something for yourself while abroad and bring it back.

That's why you get certain allowances of how much you are allowed to bring back with you - say up to 200 cartons of cigarettes are free to bring over and that's clearly not something that you brought with you.


In the case of Sweden, the personal duty-free allowance absolutely does not run to the cost of a specced-out Mac Pro: https://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/individuals/travelling...

> Other goods (including perfume, coffee, tea, electronic devices etc.)(a) - Up to a value of €430 for air and sea travellers


It's one law that every single country has on the books and no one ever enforces - observe how it has no provision for anything that you actually own, if you go out of EU with your MacBook Pro and come back you should technically be declaring it at customs as an item over the allowance value. You should be declaring your phone and your watch if it's an expensive one too. Literally no one does this, and if you do try declaring those items you will be just waived through for wasting the guard's time.

If it is fraud, then at what point is it not? If I used it for a day/week/month before bringing it, is it ok? Intent matters I suppose, but how do you prove intent to circumvent import duties, versus just bringing my stuff? I genuinely don't know, seems like a lot of gray area.

IANAL, but I think if you were legally resident in the USA for some number of years, and then moved to the EU, you could bring your personal possessions with you.

If you travel to the USA for a week and buy something, that's subject to import duty.


I believe it would reduce the import duty on the devices manufactured in India.

Exactly. When Apple started manufacturing some of their phones in Brazil, the prices didn't change, but their profit margin sure did.

A significant portion of the cost is because of import taxes. They usually are high but have been increased further of late.

indeed, I recall being in Thailand where HD's are (were?) built, and buying one still costed aprox 2x the price in the USA.

The company manufacturing on the outskirts of Bangalore is Wistron. Not Foxconn.

The glory days of iPhones are over.Its gonna be 10k less than the existing one and it's still for top 1 or 2 %

The top 1% of India is about 13 million people so it isn’t necessarily crazy for apple to only target a small proportion of the population.

Due to massive taxes for pre-built smartphones and less taxes for components(A tactic effectively employed to pressure manufactures to make their phone in India), top tier iPhones cost the highest in India. When these are manufactured in the country, it should match the price of other countries.

But that doesn't mean it will become affordable, Apple has positioned itself as a luxury brand & is said to have the largest markup among smartphone manufacturers.

Indians looking for cost/value will always have better alternative, but for those 'Who value themselves upon what others see in their hands' will burn lesser cash than before.


If it were cheaper to build iPhones in India Apple would have been doing that from the start. If you’re lucky prices will remain the same but they probably will go up.

> Tired of paying a premium for Apple products in India.

I might be wrong but, I think, OP might be referencing to the fact that phones manufactured in India are exempt from import tarrifs (cross trade avg of around 14%).

https://www.export.gov/article?id=India-Import-Tariffs


The price of the phone is not based on tariffs. We’ll see.

Trying to interpret this.

First of all $300M isn't a lot of money for this sort of operation. I guess it barely buys a good line of equipment, installed with an operable workforce, if that. Secondly, the amount of manual labour in iPhone assembly has to be pretty minimal with respect to margins. Can anyone enlighten us to the management situation?

I guess perhaps the true story behind the 'asserted' transition to an additional base in India includes other factors like: freeing Foxconn capital from China (currently their largest production base, with rising costs, a slowing market and perennial foreign exchange hassles), gaining additional internal production operations experience within a foreign non-'Chinese' (ie. Taiwan/China) environment, and cross-jurisdictional legal/tax/tariff/exchange rate hedging. (The US-China trade war has to have scared the pants off anyone in a consumer electronics this heavily.)


It's a logistics/risk balancing/new demand move.

1. Logistics: Cheaper to ship to rich Middle east and maybe even Europe

2. Risk balancing: With uncertainty at political levels about tariffs and trade rules, it makes sense to distribute production to multiple places in the world.

3. New demand: Lower cost of production == lower prices in India. Apple has negligible penetration in the largest fastest growing market. This move is a bet to try to beat android competition in price and raise global demand for IPhones.

Honestly, this move is a no-brainer. The benefits are endless.


I think Apple is pretty late at this point. Xiaomi and Oppo have figured out the distribution, localization, and a sizeable user base already there, and a decent smart phone now costs $150-200. They are quite good phones and from what I understand, price is the biggest driver for sales.

But apple is a luxury brand. You can't say that with Xiaomi or Oppo. With luxury brand the price is not a bug but a feature for the people that swear by them.

And Rich people don't even care about the money. the 50-100 million rich people in india are least bothered about the price tag as long as it signifies luxury and status.


Xiaomi is a luxury brand in the Chinese market.

And rich by Indian standards doesn't mean they can afford to spend over $1000 on an iPhone: in India, a top 1% household earns only about $1000/month.


Apple will mostly rely on its loyal customer base (at least in India) who will support and buy only Apple products, which of course primarily means the iPhone. Plus, if the prices do in fact drop once they start manufacturing in India, I'm sure there will be many more XYZ-Chinese-company to Apple conversions.

Gdp per capita for India is around ~$2000. India does not have much of a market for +$500 phones nor does it have a contract system where the +$500 can be paid over time. So I don't see it help Apple much in gaining market share. At the current Apple prices I have seen multiple long time Apple users leave Apple. Unless Apple is willing to cut its margins dramatically I don't see them getting much of a foot hold in India.

You are forgetting India is a land of 1.3 billion people. There are at least 50 - 100 million people who are willing to spend more than 500$ on a phone. That's a big enough market for Apple to consider.

No. The sale of 500$+ phones in only in a few million.

Yep, but it's growing. The premium segment(above 500$) is the fastest growing segment of the market. And even the segment just below it (300$ - 500$) is a chunky portion of the market who are all potential customers for the premium segment.

1.3 billion people, 2% own an iPhone (according to another comment here), equals 25 million iDevices in India...

> The sale of 500$+ phones in only in a few million.

Its not about market size today, you have to look into the future as well.


In the future apple's phones would be 1500 plus. They are already making loss. Apple's positioning in India is as a 'premium' brand. It's price is so high that even IT employees buy in EMI. Meanwhile Chinese android phones haves 95% of the quality at 1/5th the price. There is no market fit

The problem I see with that argument is that it dismisses what all sorts of other upmarket brands are doing in India.

Volkswagen, Mercedes-Benz and others are making essentially the same play. They must see a valuable enough market to warrant that kind of investment.


"The company needs to meet a 30 percent local sourcing rule to be able to open its own stores in the country."

It is just the result of protectionism.


It’s not “just” that, it’s actially the desired result of the protectionist policy, which appears to have been effective.

How dare a country enforce policies that benefit the domestic economy.

Assuming a benefit is a fallacy. It’s a benefit only which analyzed through a superficial lens.

That’s a very abstract comment. Such policies seem completely measurable to me. Can you elaborate?

Why don't other large, developing countries adopt similar policies? What are the downsides?

Many do. The downside is that a heavy import tax makes whatever is being imported more expensive for local consumers to buy. In some sense this makes them poorer.

The goal is usually to encourage local firms to grow and compete, and sometimes that happens (e.g. Hyundai). But sometimes the local firms become complacent in their walled garden (e.g. Hindustan Motors).


You get ignored by lots of international companies that dont want to play by your silly and often unprofitable rules. Leading to a loss of choice and quality in goods and services, and a general depression of the economy over time. The softer hand moves more grain or something.

Revenge in the form of trade wars that screw everyone in the end. Exactly what the US is doing right now with all its tariffs, which are not helping US manufacturers (their stated intent) and are hurting US consumers (due to revenge tariffs).

Many others do, but usually on a more limited basis to protect certain industries. Brazil does for virtually all electronics.

Strong government management of the economy was the foundation for the success of Japan, South Korea, and Singapore in the mid 20th century (as an example). So absolutely people do it.

My guess is that they are only doing this to meet the local restrictions in order to open stores, avoid extra taxes inside of India.

Good for everybody when knowledge to produce high end electronics at scale is not exclusive to China.

India should demand that the Chinese firm share their manufacturing techniques.

Foxconn is setting up the manufacturing. I'm sure they intend to share the techniques with themselves.

Pretty meaningful change. Hopefully the advent of this will result in increased social mobility and the rise of a homegrown hardware technology industry in the coming years.

This is so against globalisation and global trade it‘s not even funny. Totally cool if Apple did this voluntarily, but the only reason they‘re doing it is to prevent high import taxes.

India is a huge market. So it‘s all good. Brazil is a good deal smaller and requires the same thing. So does Argentina (and is even smaller). Now imagine every country would do this.


In some ways, every third-world country in the world SHOULD do this. I say this as an Indian iPhone user.

iPhones are a luxury product. A tax on imported high end electronics is a tax on the well-off. Not only that, it's the best kind - a tax that an end-user can choose whether or not they want to pay.


> A tax on imported high end electronics is a tax on the well-off.

According to the latest market research [1] in China, IPhone are mostly used in China by undereducated people with relatively low income, people with decent education & job mostly use Android phones.

This is consistent with what I see on daily basis - almost all my friends & coworkers use MacBook Pro + Huawei/Xiaomi phone. If I try really really hard, I can probably eventually list 1-2 friends & coworkers who use iPhone, but like I said, I need to try hard to recall that.

[1] https://www.scmp.com/tech/article/2174310/research-highlight...


In most ways they shouldn't, poorer countries have been doing rather well out of globalisation. If trade wars started all over the world they would suffer the most.

> poorer countries have been doing rather well out of globalisation.

Rich countries as well, lot of pharma drugs sold in the US come from India.


For non-essential products, yes, I think most developing countries should impose an import tax on non-essential luxuries. In India same rules apply to imported cars as well - which has massively helped local industry because Mercedes, BMW, Audi all have factories here. There's no reason for Apple to get special treatment.

India makes medicine cheap and iPhones costly. And you are complaining?

> India is a huge market.

There was a time when the British destroyed the textiles trade in India and made everyone buy stuff made in Manchester. Before that India had 25% or so of the global market.

With a billion or so people living in the sub-continent there should be an indigenous mobile phone and eco-system that suits the market better than what Silicon Valley can provide. China can do it, Europe used to be able to do it. It is not as if India is short of highly educated software engineers. If, instead of everyone in India having an Indian mobile phone, everyone has an iPhone then everyone is going to be sending off a portion of their wealth off to Cupertino (even if that money ends up in off shore tax havens).

There are national security issues with this, regardless of how well Apple claim they are on the side of privacy. Just for sovereignty reasons the Indian government should be using heir own tech instead of providing incentives for Apple to set up shop.


what's up with so much nationalism coming from India?

why would it matter where you're sending a portion of your so-called "wealth" when you're getting something in return?

considering the horrific state India is in (high corruption, high poverty, low healthcare, no infrastructure, you name it), the location of where an iPhone is produced should literally be the last thing the government cares about.

maybe the value of the potential taxes are too much for the government not to stick their hands in?


It’s because where the money goes is where it circulates, which ultimately affects the GDP.

Every dollar that leaves India, Nigeria or any other developing country is one less dollar that can pay for jobs (plumbers, electricians, doctors etc) in the local market.

South Africa used to have very restrictive currency export controls partly due to apartheid-era sanctions, and one consequence is that it stimulated domestic production and innovation, perhaps far more than any other African country. They’ve now relaxed those controls but it is arguable that they were necessary at that stage of their economic development.


>why would it matter where you're sending a portion of your so-called "wealth" when you're getting something in return?

Perhaps the "wealth" you're sending and what you're getting back are qualitatively different and you have reason to prefer one over the other. Or even more simply, perhaps what you're getting in return isn't worth more than what you're giving. As an aside, in the philosophy of exploitation, it is entirely possible for exploitation to exist even if both the exploiter and the exploited benefit in some way in the transaction.


> considering the horrific state India is in (high corruption, high poverty, low healthcare, no infrastructure, you name it),

You missed jobs in that statement, Iphone factory brings jobs directly and indirectly in that region. Try looking at the big picture.


In the automotive sector India has its own successful manufacturers.

Tata now owns a whole slew of British auto companies in Jaguar/Land Rover. So, despite these horror stories of corruption, someone in the Indian auto sector is doing something right.

I don't see why, given the market size, that India can't have its own full stack of mobile phone tech, operating systems, apps and everything else. Why settle for crumbs from the Apple table? Why settle for a few jobs for the profits to go back to Cupertino? The Tata Steel example is proof that dreams don't have to be downsized and that countries have to be beholden to American corporations.


> Why settle for a few jobs for the profits to go back to Cupertino?

You may have the luxury to say that, lot of Indians dont. They need that job.


Globalization is a big word.

At least in the context of the last few generations, this is not an unusual avenue to globalization. It's pretty much the template followed by auto manufacturing as it globalised, for example.


Even America wants some of the high end manufacturing jobs back...

Do you know if these phones will be exported to the US or just for domestic consumption in India?

Also how "complicated" is the manufacturing? Is it just lsat-mile assembling of all pre-made components shipped in from the US, China, Germany, et al. or the same technical processes and complexity that goes on in one of these Chinese plants that pump out the iPhone X, XS and XS Maxes?


This illustrates why all of those stories[1] about why Apple can't manufacture in the USA are relatively hollow.

Apple doesn't manufacture in the US as they are not forced to manufacture in the US. If they were, they'd make it happen and work-around any issues, just as they have in India.

Apple doesn't want to manufacture in India (via Foxconn) but the Indian regulations and government didn't budge which forced Apple's and Foxconn's hand. Result: Apple/Foxconn is now making iPhones in India.

If the US citizens stood up for their own interests more, then there would be a Made in the USA iPhone... perhaps more expensive than a China made one, but Apple may decide to absorb the margin hit to retain marketshare in their largest market.

[1] https://www.theverge.com/2019/1/28/18200330/why-apple-cant-m...


However there would be a lot less choice because not all Android phone manufacturers are going to bother and the prices are going to go up because of less competition and higher costs for everyone. Also consider that other countries are going to respond to this kind of protectionism which is not free.

Hopefully, sane-priced iPhones in India I guess. I'm interested now.

[flagged]


> I agree with an above poster, this seems to me like a political or legal concession just for Apple to be able to sell in India more easily (or maybe at all?).

Yes it is. And it has paid off well for India and it's people.

> India by comparison is a disaster. You don't even know which official to bribe to get the power to stay on properly. Almost more trouble than it's worth to enter that market.

There are hundreds of thousands of factories already set up in India. India has almost all the major car companies manufacturing here, there is Samsung with its biggest phone manufacturing plant in the world, I think almost all of Xiaomi's phone sold in India are made in India. With a market as big as India's, a company as big as Apple can surely figure out how to navigate through the process.


> Read all the articles about the manufacturing ecosystem around Apple factories in China, the special bonded customs zones the regional governments set up, the incentives, and workers they help recruit

It is called SEZ or Special Economic Zones in India. Take some time and read up on it first before coming to wrong conclusions: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_economic_zone#India. It has been around for multiple decades now. It isn't some new concept. All MNCs are situated in SEZs be it Google, Facebook, Microsoft or now Apple. Apple is the latest entrant and not first by any means.

> India by comparison is a disaster. You don't even know which official to bribe to get the power to stay on properly. Almost more trouble than it's worth to enter that market.

This is a ridiculous assertion based on heresy with no evidence to back it up. Ease of doing business has increased drastically in the past few years. Multiple foreign companies have setup shop in India and some have been in India for decades now (Microsoft, Google etc). I can understand if you had compared India to a Western country but comparing it to China? Are you serious?

If India was really such a "disaster" compared to China why did Google quit China and not India? Does that in itself not invalidate all your points?

Also, coming to your "bribe" issue: do you mean to say "lobbying"? Because bribing is almost non-existent in India when it comes to operations of MNCs. You need to "lobby" for laws that favour MNCs. That has been the case for a long time in India now. But lobbying is also dying since Modi took over. You now have to come through the "Make in India" route. All foreign players are actually happy with it because there is zero red tape and all processes are fast-tracked. No need to lobby with anyone anymore and just focus on building and expanding your business. The issue for India was that it took this route too late (after many decades of extreme protectionism).

I don't know where you get your information from but it is high time you change your source.


> India by comparison is a disaster. You don't even know which official to bribe to get the power to stay on properly. Almost more trouble than it's worth to enter that market

Oh dear. Thats patently false. Major manufacturing usnits get their own dedicated connection along with own local grids. The power situation for large industries is as good as it gets. Smaller industries and consumers may get the shaft in some areas but this is never the case for the big ones in major manufactiruing areas.


> Read all the articles about the manufacturing ecosystem around Apple factories in China, the special bonded customs zones the regional governments set up, the incentives, and workers they help recruit.

What? Where are you reading this? And why would you even believe it so readily? One quick Google search has the entire page full of news articles complaining of poor working conditions. Moreover, I highly doubt that the regional governments in China would aid in bettering the working conditions at manufacturing plants of an outside company, when they can't help their own workers out of the "996" work schedule [0].

[0] https://996.icu


Will there be repercussions from the US Federal government about this?



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