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Because its done under legal compulsion rather than web standards good faith. Cookies predated the more democratic process by which the web evolves today, and it was outside the EUs power to just ask the likes of the dying Netscape / Microsoft / etc to all standardize on this feature at the spec level, especially when nobody was really much following web standards at all in the early 2000s.

All those settings in browsers that let you control access to your camera, location, etc aren't part of legal compliance, they are just there because Google, Mozilla, sometimes Apple and Microsoft all agreed this is a good best behavior to avoid getting regulated on again.

If the EU started mandating an opt-in system for camera access you can bet most websites would start dumping pop up banners about it regardless of if all the browsers supported the regulation already just to avoid culpability.

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