(Update: Yep, just found it: https://github.com/mozilla/send, just before the comment below was posted :))
Data is encrypted at client and a url with a key is generated.
Can be used 'burn after reading or with some specific lifetime.
EDIT: Apparently there's a way to use filesystem instead of S3, it's just not well documented.
I recently implemented a text/snippet sharing tool that uses Minio instead of S3, because I like to self-host everything.
In my case I have Minio in front of Azure blob storage, so Seafile is storing data in that.
I host Seafile and Minio using Docker Compose, which was super-simple to get started with.