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Autocomplete Using Markov Chains (yurichev.com)
166 points by dennis714 28 days ago | hide | past | web | favorite | 17 comments



This is really cool and an inspiration of mine. As a matter of fact I am working on something very similar to this.

I don't know if you are familiar with the Dasher project for text input, but as of know I'm trying to improve on that work partly by improving on how many letters are available simultaneously by protecting the line of text upon a fractal surface. Something that should be a more efficient use of a 2d surface, theoretically infinitely so.

As far as autocomplete is concerned my approach is to try to do exactly this but on a character basis. I think this can lead to some interesting advantages, for example different dialects gives rise to words that not always conform to dictionary specifications.

The next level would be to go one step higher so to speak. If we imagine Markov Chain on letters as the first level and said chains level, I'd say that the third level in our hierarchy would be to apply markov chain on groups of words grouped by proximity in a word2vec space.

Having markov chains working on groups of word2vec words would give us a statistical analogy of grammar. However without having to implement it programatically, something that inevitably would lead to missed corner cases and if not that a too strict algorithm that would hinder intentional abuse of grammar by purpose.

Maybe this is already being implemented, as it to me seems as the logical next step. Anybody got any info on this?


A friend of mine worked on Dasher (hi Alan, if you’re reading this!); I thought they achieved the same goal with a hyperbolic space rather than a fractal space?

Given this was about a decade ago, there are probably better predictive models than whatever was in the demo he showed me, but I wouldn’t be surprised if their model was a Markov chain where the size of each next-letter option was a function of probability.

(Memory haze: I was more excited by the hyperbolic space than the word model when he showed it to me, and it was c. 2008)


I am familiar with Dasher (although my only considerations regarding it are as a tool to improve user accessibility), but I don't understand what is meant by "protecting the line of text upon a fractal surface"

Even if I change protecting to projecting I don't get it.


Woops what an embarrassing typo sorry about that.

Well imagine if you would like to draw as many intervals of any given shape but with the same length on a line.

Let's start out with a line. Then you can only have so many symbols given by the height.

To continue if we instead where to space them out over the circumference of a circle, we would on the same width have more symbols.

If we go even further and give the circle jagged edges that go in and out. Theoretically we have an infinite length on the line, but resolution on screen and eyes sets an stop to that.

So basically making use of the area of the screen instead of only a line.

Did I make more sense to you? The fractal thingy is just an experiment and not the main point of the comment so I gave a very brief description of it. It may very well be that my capabilities of describing it in proper mathematical is a bit lacking.

Will have a demo of it within a few days or so if you are interested keep your eyes open.


Ok thanks, I probably need to see it, not the most visual thinker so hard for me to envision the idea.


Yeah at first I did this as a fun sideproject a fun way of doing something of absolutely no use to anybody. Then I thought of accessibility issues, now my focus is somewhat on VR, where I envision that keyboards will break the immersion and pointing and moving a pointer on a virtual keyboard would be fun for consumer tasks, but for actual work say programming and whatnot it simply doesn't cut it.


I wonder what the result would look like if this were applied to source code. IMHO a probabilistic algorithm for code completion could turn out interesting.

Most code completion algorithms work deterministic by deducing the set of completion candidates from the receiver's type/class or a list of keywords. Given that people/teams tend to name variables in a certain fashion, a probabilistic completion algorithm could make use of this and adapt to team/project-specific conventions. Given a team's code base one could probably build a pretty good code completion algorithm without any knowledge about the programming language.

likelycomplete[1] tries to do this in a dilettantish ad-hoc way for vim. It rates completion candidates (that are gathers from previously seen code) on the basis of context information. It's hampered by the limited performance of vimscript though. A full fledged solution would require an external server.

[1] https://www.vim.org/scripts/script.php?script_id=4889


> I wonder what the result would look like if this were applied to source code. IMHO a probabilistic algorithm for code completion could turn out interesting.

Neural program synthesis is similar to what you describe, here's a sample paper:

> We consider the task of program synthesis in the presence of a reward function over the output of programs, where the goal is to find programs with maximal rewards. We employ an iterative optimization scheme, where we train an RNN on a dataset of K best programs from a priority queue of the generated programs so far. Then, we synthesize new programs and add them to the priority queue by sampling from the RNN. We benchmark our algorithm, called priority queue training (or PQT), against genetic algorithm and reinforcement learning baselines on a simple but expressive Turing complete programming language called BF. Our experimental results show that our simple PQT algorithm significantly outperforms the baselines. By adding a program length penalty to the reward function, we are able to synthesize short, human readable programs.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.03526


A product called Tabnine[1] was discussed on Hacker News recently that supposedly does this.

[1] https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=18393364


This exists as a startup called Kite: https://kite.com/


The day a completer can fix a Y situation I'll be damned


I've thought about using a markov chain suggester to trip up stylometric analysis, but never got around to creating some sort of practical UX for it.

I think if you plugged it into Vim or Emacs's autocompletion functionality, that might do the trick.


Keep in mind this is essentially the same concept as the big scary AI from OpenAI that is making the news recently. They use neural nets, not markov chains, but the idea is similar: given a word, predict the next word.

> It's surprising how easy this can be turned into something rather practically useful

Given the above, it's not so surprising: this word prediction problem is fundamental, with a wide range of applications.


> Keep in mind this is essentially the same concept as the big scary AI from OpenAI that is making the news recently. They use neural nets, not markov chains, but the idea is similar: given a word, predict the next word.

Isn't this kind of like saying that a plane is essentially the same concept as a car because they both transport people from A to B? "given a word, predict the next word" is the problem statement (i.e. what the problem is) but that's not very interesting, what's interesting is the solution (i.e. how you solve the problem). Markov Chains and the kind of Neural Nets used in the text generator that made the news are very different, even if they're attempting to solve the same problem.


This looks to be quite useful. Is there a github project that I can play around with?



would be nice to test this as a reply bot for spam mails.




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