I'm definitely not an expert in corporate finance or taxes, so I would be grateful if somebody could explain to me why I should be outraged by this.
 Replace "Amazon as an entity" with "Amazon's shareholders" or "the resources that Amazon's shareholders own and use to generate profit" if you prefer.
Most people would argue that society should rather give people more income than corporations larger profits.
Therefore, corporations should be taxed more, and income taxed less.
Of course, those who make and pass laws are heavily connected with those who make their income via investments, and therefore, change is unlikely to happen.
Yes, but it matters which individuals you end up taxing and what they did to earn that income.
Amazon's employees, who earned their income by going to work and creating value, should bear less of the tax burden than people who are receiving money from dividends and buybacks because all they did was have enough money to invest it.
Or taxing their income twice
It's about Amazon paying $0 taxes on $11B in profits while other corporations continue to pay taxes.
I disagree with this statement. It is NOT an effective way to tax shareholders. It depends on the economic incidence of the tax on the specific company. For example, companies that can outsource (like tech) have a huge competitive leg over companies that are localized and cant do the same shennanigans. Investors can shield themselves from the cost of the corpo tax buy buying low corp tax holdings. Now workers and consumers of high-corp taxes dont have the same flexibility.
You are correct in saying it would be better to get capital gains tax. Its ridicolous fundamentally that income tax is so much higher at any level than capital tax: it should have same brackets, for the mere distorsion of masking one as the other.
If you own a C-Corp, you pay taxes on the profits of the business, plus whatever you pay yourself.
Not too surprising that businesses use every loophole to not pay taxes. Individuals have fewer loopholes but they still do exist.
I spent most of today working on my taxes, and will need to do the same tomorrow to get it all done. Not sure how many hours the average person spends, but I imagine I'm typical. Multiply that time by every single employee, and that's a huge amount of time! A specialist in the company's tax department can probably accomplish the same amount of work as many people like me.
(Yes, I know they already hire tax specialists, and I know I have to do my taxes after hours, so it's "free" from the company's perspective, but at the level of society as a whole, it seems like it'd be more efficient to tax the money just once).
So, why do the shareholders of Amazon deserve to pay less tax than the shareholder of my small business?