In fruitflies and nematodes, the preferred way to shake things until they break is mutation rather than drugs, so genes often have names describing what happens when the gene is broken - which is quite confusing. So, another protein i worked on is called Dlg, short for "discs large", because in fruitflies, when missing, the imaginal discs get too big. So you know Dlg's function is somehow to keep imaginal discs small.
"Muscarine is only a trace compound in the fly agaric Amanita muscaria; the pharmacologically more relevant compounds from this mushroom are ibotenic acid and muscimol. A. muscaria fruitbodies contain a variable dose of muscarine, usually around 0.0003% fresh weight."
Looks like there's a historical reason why muscarine is associated with Amanita muscaria: it was first isolated from the mushroom by a German chemist in 1869.
When it comes to other species like Amanita phalloides (death cap) or Galerina sp. - which contain Amatoxins and resemble edibles - boiling will have no effect: You will need a liver transplant .
Amanita muscaria does not contain amatoxins - but it does contain muscimol and ibotenic acid, which are interesting in their own right .
1 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amatoxin
2 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscimol
What are examples of bolete species that are only edible if boiled? I know of a lot that are only edible if well cooked, but haven't heard of any that are only edible if specifically boiled. (I'm from New England / mid-Atlantic though, so I only know the ones around here.)
In theory, Is said that venomous boletus boiled are less toxic, but they still have unpleasant effects.
I think I need to just go take the Eagle Hill bolete class with the Bessettes one year if they keep offering it, otherwise I feel like they're just too hard to really ID beyond the handful of really easy ones.
because of this chitin, eating a mushroom raw is not very nutritious and you miss out on most of the health benefits.
The toxins in the potato (and tomato for that matter) have been removed over generations of breeding. However, I believe some of the toxins remain in those green parts you see on potatoes.
Tomatoes have smaller amounts of solanine in their leaves. You'd need to eat a lot to get sick. Around a pound or something.
>There are tomatoes that are green in nature and stays green even if it reaches its maturity stage. These tomatoes grow in areas with lower temperature and are edible. On the other hand, young tomatoes before turning red are usually green, hard, and tough to digest. The compound in these immature tomatoes is at a higher concentration of toxicity level than in ripe ones.
>While green tomatoes are proven safe to consume, whether it be cooked or eaten raw, there are still people out there that are sensitive to the alkaloids found in green tomatoes which may cause a negative reaction if ingested. It may also be gut irritants to sensitive individuals. That is why it is mostly eaten cooked or fried.
Personally I find tomatoes in general give me indigestion, whether cooked, raw or made into a sauce. Though i've always assumed it was due to the acidity. That being said, i'm usually pretty good with most other acidic foods.
This article (https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/raw-potatoes) is "fringe" for suggesting that one might eat raw potatoes, but I think summarizes the scientific viewpoint: "Raw potatoes are more likely to cause digestive issues and may contain more antinutrients and harmful compounds. Yet, they’re higher in vitamin C and resistant starch, which may provide powerful health benefits. In truth, both raw and cooked potatoes can be enjoyed in moderation as part of a healthy diet."
Anyway, while not the same as the Amanita Muscaria case, I wonder if there is something close to parallel happening with potatoes, with one culture feeling a particular preparation is necessary for safety, and another thinking it is just a culinary desire.
Just not a bucket full of green potatoes, cooked or raw.
If you can get them down, presumably.
I don't find raw potatoes particularly offensive, though rather boring by themselves.
Sure, but the ones that grow in forests are relatively uncommon and pretty hard to find. Whereas Amanita muscaria are so easy to find that it's almost impossible not to find them on a regular basis by accident, even if you're not looking for them.
What's the point in all of this tempting of the Fates who are in charge of poisons?
In a sense, they are less toxic than ethanol because they can in principle be detoxified by cooking. Compared to ethanol, the main worry seems to be the inconsistent concentration of intoxicants between mushrooms, and the delayed psychotropic effect making it hard to tell if you've consumed too much.
You are missing another crucial point: time until onset of the effects.
It is much easier to consume a lethal dose of mushrooms than ethanol before your body violently rejects the poison (colloquially known as "vomiting")