By the time I was keeping a notebook, my work was generating mountains of computer readable data, source code, and so forth. We managed by agreeing on a format for data files, where the filename referenced a notebook page, and it worked OK.
Today, it's unavoidable that people are going to keep their notes electronically, and there are no perfect solutions for doing this. Wet chemists still like paper notebooks, since it's hard to get a computer close to the bench, and to type while wearing rubber gloves. Academic workers are expected to supply their own computers, and are nervous about getting them damaged or contaminated. Plus, drawing pictures and writing equations on a computer are both awkward.
Computation related fields lend themselves well to purely electronic notebooks, no surprise. Today, a lot of my work fits perfectly in a Jupyter notebook.
Commercial notebook software exists, but it tends to be sold largely for enterprise use, i.e., the solution it solves is how to control lab workers and secure their results, not how to enable independent, creative work.
Obviously there's crypto, signing, checksums, and so on, that you can use on computers. But when the answer is as simple as writing in pen in a pre-numbered, bound notebook, and having your supervisor sign your notes, might as well just do that.
Some notes and ideas regarding Jupyter notebooks as lab notebooks from "Keeping a Lab Notebook [pdf]":