By the time I was keeping a notebook, my work was generating mountains of computer readable data, source code, and so forth. We managed by agreeing on a format for data files, where the filename referenced a notebook page, and it worked OK.
Today, it's unavoidable that people are going to keep their notes electronically, and there are no perfect solutions for doing this. Wet chemists still like paper notebooks, since it's hard to get a computer close to the bench, and to type while wearing rubber gloves. Academic workers are expected to supply their own computers, and are nervous about getting them damaged or contaminated. Plus, drawing pictures and writing equations on a computer are both awkward.
Computation related fields lend themselves well to purely electronic notebooks, no surprise. Today, a lot of my work fits perfectly in a Jupyter notebook.
Commercial notebook software exists, but it tends to be sold largely for enterprise use, i.e., the solution it solves is how to control lab workers and secure their results, not how to enable independent, creative work.
Obviously there's crypto, signing, checksums, and so on, that you can use on computers. But when the answer is as simple as writing in pen in a pre-numbered, bound notebook, and having your supervisor sign your notes, might as well just do that.
Some notes and ideas regarding Jupyter notebooks as lab notebooks from "Keeping a Lab Notebook [pdf]":
Then separately it has the whole thing that reads like it's about a protocol to prove you aren't committing fraud. Except it's hard to imagine circumstances outside of undergraduate classes where anyone is going to read your notebook trying to convict you of committing fraud. It's also hard to see how this advice helps because it just makes fraud slightly harder, now instead of editing in place you have to edit by copying things over to a new notebook.
Considering how bad the replication crisis is, if our society ever gets its shit together, many of these people should actually be convicted of fraud or at least removed from positions where they could commit further frauds.
Anyway, use a paper notebook. It's worth the trouble for lots of reasons. Also use analog chart recorders if you can.
(Much the same is true if Carol discloses confidential information to Dave under an NDA, and Dave realizes that his team had previously known the information and so the information shouldn't be subject to the NDA: If Dave's team has contemporaneous written records of their prior knowledge or independent development of the information, it can really help their case if Carol sues them for breach of the NDA.)
People tend to hate pencils. I love them.
They're more permanent and chemically stable than ink - unless, or course - the eraser monster hides around your book.
They just give this. But, there is a lot of interesting discussion about different inks vs pencil for archiving things that I would've loved to read.
The right hand side of the note book was a final and standing statement of your notes and was to be indelible ink with bracket and single cross through in the case of transcription errors. the right hand page was the "final answer"
Notebooks of the Mind: Explorations of Thinking https://www.amazon.com/dp/0195108965