Wasn't Perl 6's Parrot kind of meant to fulfil that role?
Yes, that was an original project goal. You can see this as far back as Larry's State of the Onion 2003:
... the "Parrot: Some Assembly Required" article written by Simon Cozens in September 2001:
... or, if you trust Git commits rather than articles which could have been edited in the meantime, the same article revised as introductory docs in the Parrot repository in December 2001: