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> Nicotine on direct application in humans causes irritation and burning sensation in the mouth and throat, increased salivation, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea.[17] Gastrointestinal effects are less severe but can occur even after cutaneous and respiratory exposure.[18] Predominant immediate effects as seen in animal studies and in humans consist of increase in pulse rate and blood pressure. Nicotine also causes an increase in plasma free fatty acids, hyperglycemia, and an increase in the level of catecholamines in the blood.[19,20] There is reduced coronary blood flow but an increased skeletal muscle blood flow.[20,22] The increased rate of respiration causes hypothermia, a hypercoagulable state, decreases skin temperature, and increases the blood viscosity.

Nicotine is one of the most toxic of all poisons and has a rapid onset of action. Apart from local actions, the target organs are the peripheral and central nervous systems. In severe poisoning, there are tremors, prostration, cyanosis, dypnoea, convulsion, progression to collapse and coma. Even death may occur from paralysis of respiratory muscles and/or central respiratory failure with a LD50 in adults of around 30-60 mg of nicotine. In children the LD50 is around 10 mg.


"...hypokalemia, hyponatremia, ventricular arrhythmias, hypertension followed by hypotension, respiratory failure, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, ventricular fibrillation and finally circulatory collapse."


You can also die from caffeine. What is your point, beyond "the dose makes the poison"?

The fact that a risk exists is irrelevant, and it was never the point. If you want to understand the risks associated with nicotine and caffeine, you measure them. There are a number of metrics we can use as a proxy for risk, like margin of exposure or margin of safety, but these give us an incomplete understanding of the risks. The problem with electronic cigarettes is that children are particularly prone to the following things:

- Eating or drinking inappropriate things,

- Eating or drinking things which are colorful or have a pleasant aroma, and

- Being more sensitive to certain chemicals (e.g. nicotine) than adults.

So if you told me, "Let's put nicotine in a mango-scented liquid and put it in reach of children," I think we should be alarmed. Likewise, when we took iron supplements and put them in the shape of colorful pills or animals with a sweet taste like candy, and then children started eating them and getting iron poisoning, we got concerned.

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