Fabrication of the case and battery are doable outside of Asia, although to get a phone shaped battery, you might need to roll your own. I know of no major manufacturer outside of Asia. Case can be cnc'd just about anywhere.
Board is going to be difficult, but easier. AllPCB can probably take care of the high layer count board, but it's not going to be cheap.
Screens are going to be a bigger issue than battery. I know of no modern phone sized screen manufacturers outside of asia that could make a 1080P screen in bulk. That's not something that would be easy to roll yourself either.
Chips are going to be, by far, the most difficult part. If you're willing to call the Philippines part of Oceania, it's a bit easier, but not much. Even if you can get a CPU, ram and flash storage chips made outside Asia (big if), all your small passives are made in China and basically nowhere else.
This is ignoring assembly, cameras, coatings, etc.
Basically, any phone you buy is going to be majority Asian manufactured. Even if you wanted to make a phone domestically, I doubt you could make anything that competes with Chinese products. I'm not sure what the wording on the ban is, so this might not be as drastic as I think.
Interestingly, this has only been true since 2012, after Nokia closed its factories in Finland, Hungary, and Mexico.
High-end injection molding is a speciality of many in Europe, so that's really not going to be a problem.
All that aside I find issue with the thesis of your question. Assuming the Taiwan, South Korea, Japan are the same as China is naive at best and racist at worst. So asking about “phones not made in Asia” is meaningless (not to mention Asia also includes India, etc). Even if read by the spirit of the question and not the word of it, it feels very anti-globalist and protectionalistic which itself is not an issue but instead of repeating arguments against it, I’ll just refer you to the body of literature about the whole debate.
I've encountered counterfeit parts several times with OEM equipment. Storage, memory and NICs in particular. If you care about this issue, I think it's reasonable to be cautious about the provenance parts in general, as sub-components may be ultimately sourced by China or on the general market, depending on the product.
Calling that racist is a little much -- understanding your supply chain is meaningful in many scenarios. There are vendors who audit samples of products for supply chain integrity, and they do find issues.
https://www.gigaset.com/hq_en/gigaset-gs185/ (used to belong to Siemens I think)
Still in Asia, but I know at least some Samsung devices are made in Korea.
Supposedly, about a third of Samsung phones are produced in Vietnam https://e27.co/1-3-samsung-phones-made-vietnam-20150513/.
Some googling shows me that Taiwan, Vietnam, South Korea, Japan and India have significant share of smartphones produced (one example https://www.androidauthority.com/where-smartphones-are-made-...).
Can you have any advanced device that doesn't contain anything made by 50% of humanity? no.
This comment is sent to you from Asia and 7000km away from Beijing.
Maybe for small consumer goods. Would be interesting to know the component sources for a Tesla car, or a military jet.
“China” (you say Asia but presumably you don’t mean that) is not a monolith.
The P.C. judgmental attitude shows you have been brainwashed. Racist ? Anyone living in China knows about the abuse etc. It is common knowledge. Apple suppliers are among the most abusive. Whenever I hear an Apple spokesperson deny knowledge of this my immediate thought is a...delusional b..ignorant. The majority of major phone brands are also complicit. You don't need any (guanxi) to find the truth.
Please stop judging comments as politically correct or not. Discard your p.c. brainwashing and come to Asia. You might be surprised at what you learn. BTW my company is in Hong Kong and mainland China. In case you were wondering.
We don't come close to seeing all the comments on HN, so it's impossible to moderate perfectly, or even consistently. We do as much as we can.