>> We can’t stress enough how important it is to measure your applications and the tools used to measure those applications.
In general, hardware-oriented data-structure design is really appropriate for organizations with:
1. Large server workloads that exercise the data structure frequently.
2. Fine-grained control of what hardware they're using.
3. Very very good continuous profiling and monitoring of the production workload.
I often see #3 missing when people propose writing their own hash table or whatever, but it's an essential prerequisite. These days, serious wins tend to come from making large assumptions (X instructions will get vectorized, Y access pattern dominates) and specializing your implementation to them.
Additional material for data-oriented design: