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Swift: When Unused Code Is a Bug (peripheryapp.com)
137 points by ileitch 6 months ago | hide | past | web | favorite | 74 comments

Wow, Heisen-Swift, where the Heisenbugs are in the language specification!

What an object is, which is roughly equivalent to its observed behavior, should never depend on how it is declared.

   let greeter = LazyGreeter()
   let greeter1: Greeter = greeter
UPDATE: just in case it's not clear, this prints the following:

   Hello, World!
So the same object responds differently to the same message, depending on how it is declared. Yikes!

It seems this is what you get when you decide dynamic dispatch is a demon that must be cast out. :/ It's a good example of Swift's at-times-infuriating insistence on chasing performance at the expense of developer ergonomics. That said, I'm sure it will be mediated eventually (although probably with more compiler annotations).

The problem here is that Swift is sort of this hybrid between two disparate worldviews, the old Objective-C world where inheritance is cool and dispatch is dynamic and the new world where inheritance is not even permitted and traits are used to provide dynamic dispatch. It's trying to be everything to everyone. This is one of those crossover points where the seams don't meet. If this was all dynamic, it would be fine because the messages would be dispatched properly. If this was all new world, you wouldn't even be allowed to subclass, would refer to your trait explicitly, and again, everything would work fine.

This is a fundamental structural issue with the language, philosophically, and will definitely cost programmer productivity. I'd argue this isn't a problem so much as behaves correctly due to insufficient planning.

It's not that they're taking a position on dynamic dispatch, it's that they're trying to take both positions, likely in support of Objective-C compatibility.

IMO dynamic dispatch has caused way more programmer productivity issues than anything else - you write code the compiler can't validate because you explicitly chose not to give it the information it needs to do it's job. It can't tell you your code is right. Nothing really can. The new world is a better place, Go and Rust have it right, inheritance is dead.

While inheritance is OK, and useful in programming-by-difference scenarios, Objective-C style polymorphism has always de-emphasized inheritance.

Dynamic dispatch is central to both the most productive and largest-scale software systems/environments in the world. If you think the compiler can tell you everything, you're in for a world of hurt, and if you think you can statically type-check the world: good luck.

Again, inheritance is useful, though overused in static languages that only allow polymorphism together with inheritance.

Objective-C deemphasizes formal inheritance. Class clusters and informal protocols generally substitute for some of the benefits that inheritance can give.

I guess fundamentally, this is the question I have about this situation: would you ever, in real code, want dispatch to go straight back to the default implementation when you have in hand a value with a custom implementation?

I may be having a failure of imagination; but I certainly haven't ever seen a case where I'd want that.

I’d imagine the issue lies in Swift classes utilizing only static dispatch. The protocol conformance creates a witness table populated by the methods of the class in question, but as Swift classes have no vtables except in ObjC compatability mode (right?) there’s no way to pass down the invocation from the protocol witness to a specific subclass as the method can not be resolved at runtime. This is the difference between the dynamic dispatch via witness table and the explicit static dispatch to the subclass when type information is available.

Thus it comes down to dynamic dispatch always (or at least for anything that has a protocol conformance at all) vs surprising behavior here.

I do agree with you, however.

Classes do get dynamic dispatch at least for methods/properties that can be overridden (i.e., `open`). I believe the value must also still have a reference to its class's method impls -- otherwise what happens when you cast it `if let noReallyLazyGreeter = lazyGreeter as? LazyGreeter {`? Not certain about these details, though.

This is far too far, and a lot of it is wrong

If you could elaborate on what is wrong with it, that would be helpful, compared to just dismissing it.

Yeah I’d love to have a conversation about your thoughts here!

> infuriating insistence on chasing performance at the expense of developer ergonomics

It would be slightly less infuriating had that chase actually delivered, but it dramatically has not.

Could you clarify... the "declaration" includes the type right?

So why should behavior not depend on the (static) type of the term?

That's a very standard use of static typing. It seems like you're coming from a dynamic background.

There really isn't any such principle or rule here, only it seems, unfamiliarity with type systems.

> What an object is, which is roughly equivalent to its observed behavior, should never depend on how it is declared.

This is actually a statement that strong typing should not exist. A "declaration" (really a type declaration) indicates the type, and if observed behavior cannot depend on the types there is not much point to types. Or stated positively: in a strongly typed language, the types are part of 'what an object is'.

Or, stated by example:

    let a: Int = 3
    let b: Float = 3
    print(a/2) //prints 1
    print(b/2) //prints 1.5
Both a and b are "the same" value, insofar as they are `==` and they model the same underlying mathematical concept. But behavior varies because they differ in type.

OP's snippet actually works quite a lot differently than the way you may expect; LazyGreeter.greet() and Greeter.greet() are two completely independent functions that share the same name. Name resolution is a complex topic in any language, but in Swift if you wanted to override another function you would say `override`, in which case the compiler will complain there is nothing you can override in `BaseGreeter` at which point you will understand the whole mistake.

There is actually no way to "pick" LazyGreeter's implementation of the unrelated function (as perhaps you expect). The only function we can call on a Greeter is Greeter.greet (or its overloads, and there are none). So if Greeter.greet did not exist, we would not get LazyGreeter.greet() but rather a type error.

I do think a case can be made that we need a similar `implements` keyword like `override` to check that we are implementing a protocol requirement.

> This is actually a statement that strong typing should not exist.

Nope. It is a statement that objects shouldn't be different depending on how you look at them.

The example is a class, so a reference type. That means that greeter and greeter1 are just two references to the exact same underlying object.

Your example are two distinct value type instances that you happened to initialize from the same literal.

So not even close to comparable situations. Speaking of comparable:

> Both a and b are "the same" value, insofar as they are `==`

Also nope.

   let a: Int = 3
   let b: Float = 3

   let r=a==b
Let's compile this:

   swiftc numbers.swift 
   numbers.swift:4:8: error: binary operator '==' cannot be applied to operands of type 'Int' and 'Float'
   let r=a==b
         ~^ ~
   numbers.swift:4:8: note: expected an argument list of type '(Int, Int)'
   let r=a==b

You may not be familiar with swift but a protocol isn’t necessarily a class. Structs ( so, value type) can also implements a protocol, and so in effect you can not tell a lot about what you’re manipulating, beyond what’s declared at the protocol level.

From TFA:

   class BaseGreeter: Greeter {}

   class LazyGreeter: BaseGreeter {

> That means that greeter and greeter1 are just two references to the exact same underlying object

They are two references that differ in type. It is a feature in Swift (and any strongly-typed language) that references are typed and when types differ, behaviors can differ. I understand you disagree with this design principle but it is an inherent property of strong type systems that have reference semantics.

> two distinct value type instances

“Nope.” There isn’t any such thing as a “value type instance” since instances are a semantic of reference types.

> objects shouldn’t be different depending on how you look at them

The “difference” here is only in the types, so this statement is equivalent to “references shouldn’t be different depending on their type.” This statement implies that types should be useless

> There isn’t any such thing as a “value type instance”


"An instance of a class is traditionally known as an object. However, Swift structures and classes are much closer in functionality than in other languages, and much of this chapter describes functionality that applies to instances of either a class or a structure type. Because of this, the more general term instance is used."


"Structure and Class Instances"


"Structures and Enumerations Are Value Types

A value type is a type whose value is copied when it’s assigned to a variable or constant, or when it’s passed to a function.

You’ve actually been using value types extensively throughout the previous chapters. In fact, all of the basic types in Swift—integers, floating-point numbers, Booleans, strings, arrays and dictionaries—are value types, and are implemented as structures behind the scenes."


> “references shouldn’t be different depending on their type.”

You are confusing the type of the variable with the type of the object/value contained in the variable. A static type system is there to ensure that the type of the variable matches the type its contents.

> You are confusing the type of the variable with the type of the object/value contained in the variable.

I’m not “confusing” them; I’m prioritizing the former over the latter, whereas you are prioritizing the latter over the former. This is the classic strong/weak typing debate.

If you want a language in which the dynamic type overrides the static type, there are several (including Swift if you are explicit about the override, and sometimes even if you are not explicit).

> A static type system is there to ensure that the type of the variable matches the type in its contents

A strong type system is there to apply strict type rules. one of Swift’s type rules is that Greeter.greet() calls that function or an override, not an unrelated function that could only be inferred at runtime.

Your example does not have the same structure; `Int` and `Float` are concrete types, not interface types.

> strong typing

Strong typing is not the same as static typing. `let greeter: Greeter = LazyGreeter()` is a strongly-typed `LazyGreeter`: you cannot use it where a value of another incompatible type is required, nor can you change its runtime type. But its static type is `Greeter`. Swift uses the latter for method resolution, but there's nothing inevitable or inherent about that.

`NSArray * array = [NSArray new];` is statically typed as an `NSArray`, but its dynamic (and strong) type is `__NSArray0`, and that's where the value's implementations come from.

> they model the same underlying mathematical concept

They don't: one models an integral and the other models(/approximates) a real. Which is why, as another commentor already pointed out, they're not `==`.

a and b are not the same value, and don't model the same underlying concept.

a: Int would be 0x0000000000000003.

b: Float would be 0x40400000.

While both are specified literally as "3" the compiler de-sugars that into the values above, and further, the type system takes that knowledge into consideration to prevent you from doing things that don't make sense like trying to equate "a" and "b" without explicitly performing a lossy conversion (Binary operator '==' cannot be applied to operands of type 'Float' and 'Int').

I don't believe this to be a name resolution issue, but rather a protocol conformance creates a vtable for the protocol but beyond that dynamic dispatch doesn't exist so it's not possible to resolve the actual method overridden in the subclass.

This isn't a statement on typing (other than your example actually making a solid case for strong typing); rather the boundary between static and dynamic dispatch is not well-constructed in the case of protocol conformances.

Interestingly, in Swift, you Cannot compare `a == b` as the compiler tells you the two types are incompatible.

Haskell has no problem with this(though its default Num hierarchy is sorely lacking)

    Prelude> a = 1
    Prelude> a/2
    Prelude> :t a/2
    a/2 :: Fractional a => a
    Prelude> b = 1 :: Int
    Prelude> b/2

    <interactive>:6:1: error:
        • No instance for (Fractional Int) arising from a use of ‘/’
        • In the expression: b / 2
          In an equation for ‘it’: it = b / 2
    Prelude> b `div` 2
    Prelude> :t div
    div :: Integral a => a -> a -> a

I’m trying to wrap my C# brain around this...

Is this similar to the C# construct....

interface IGreeter { void Greet()}

class BaseGreeter :IGreeter {

public void Greet {Console.WriteLine(“Hello World”)}

public void IGreeter:Greet {Console.Writeline(“sup”)} }


Greeter greet1 = new Greeter();

IGreeter greet2 = greet1();

Console.Writeline(greet1 == greet2) greet1.Greet() greet2.Greet()

Would print I believe.


Hello World


I'm reading the comments here about how the languages fails, or what it should have done better, but at the same time I'm feeling the same as I do when building up something with Kubernetes and the problem isn't really the language, it's the shortcuts we take with it to stay concise.

e.g. in Kubernetes you can give a Pod, Deployment, Service, Ingress, Volume, etc. etc. the exact same name and in fact many examples encourage that (because they are namespaced on the type). However this is practically just an artefact of a previous choice and when you're looking at your YAML files you may not immediately know that distinction unless you have some familiarity with the tech.

What it says is that you can call everything the exact same thing. And it will work, and it will seem nice or elegant.

So it is with this Swift example and having a protocol, an extension, and a base class all declaring the exact same thing. Even if the compiler figures it out, how would you without reading the spec or knowing where those files live (because in the real world they would be spread across the filesystem)? It's just poor consideration for comprehension.

You make a fair point, but isn't it part of a platform's responsibility to not make footguns quite so easy to grab? Especially given Swift's general (and mostly helpful) attitude of insistence on safe, explicit constructs. For example, it's a warning to ignore a function call result; it's an error to not chain up to a superclass's initializer; it's an error to re-implement a class member without the `override` keyword.

Doesn't this situation deserve similar compiler scrutiny?

The problem with this angle is that while sure, you can always make a compiler more intelligent in ambiguous situations, you must also now train all the humans interfacing with it to be equally as intelligent (or at least, able to sufficiently disambiguate).

We don't see many context-sensitive grammars for programming languages, not because very difficult to implement, but I suspect because they're hard for humans to understand.

There is something to be said for the simplicity of naming things to describe what they are (e.g. Hungarian notation), but I really think it's a mistake for languages (configuration, programming, etc.) to even allow identifiers to be reused for differing types.

> make a compiler more intelligent in ambiguous situations, [but] you must also now train all the humans interfacing with it to be equally as intelligent

I'm not sure what you mean here; probably I'm misunderstanding you somehow.

If you make the compiler more intelligent so that it can tell the humans about subtle problems, that lets the humans be less intelligent (or at least have to think less). No?

> So it is with this Swift example and having a protocol, an extension, and a base class all declaring the exact same thing.

I'm not sure what you mean. The only thing that's named the same is 'greet', and of course that has to be the same because it's the thing you're implementing.

Edit: Perhaps the protocol and extension could have different names? I don't see how that would make the behavior clearer.

Default implementations on protocols in Swift definitely can be a little dangerous. We've shied our team away from doing this unless the protocol is explicitly used as a mix-in type.

There's been some proposals around fixing these, one that comes to mind is: https://forums.swift.org/t/introducing-role-keywords-to-redu...

This doesn't seem to be about default implementations on protocols, I guess they do actually do virtual dispatch so you wouldn't hit this bug with default impls. The main issue is that we have an extension method on a type with the same name of a member of that type. So it can always be statically flagged whether or not the method is used anywhere else. This is easily reproducible in any language that supports extension methods (C#, for instance). I wonder if that could be useful at all.

Coming from the .NET world, where extension methods are just syntactic sugar for static methods, the "bug" described in the article wasn't surprising to me. However, it did make me stop and think about how the example would look in C#. This was what I came up with:

    public interface IGreeter {
    public static class GreeterExtensions {
        public void Greet(this IGreeter greeter) {
            // If you have CA turned on,
            // you'll get a warning for not
            // using the parameter "greeter"
            Console.WriteLine("Hello, World!");
    public class BaseGreeter : IGreeter {
        public abstract void Greet();
    public class LazyGreeter : BaseGreeter {
        public override void Greet() {
    IGreeter greeter = new LazyGreeter();
    // This has to be GreeterExtensions.Greet(greeter),
    // because IGreeter is an empty interface

I think the syntax in C# makes it clearer that you're doing something funky mixing inheritance with extension methods. If you wanted to do it the "correct" way, I think it would look something like:

    public interface IGreeter {
        void Greet();
    public class BaseGreeter : IGreeter {
        // Edit: abstract method wouldn't be equivalent to example
        // public abstract void Greet();
        public virtual void Greet() {
            Console.WriteLine("Hello, World!");
    public class LazyGreeter : BaseGreeter {
        public override void Greet() {
    IGreeter greeter = new LazyGreeter();

Which is more complicated than the idiomatic way of providing default behavior with inheritance:

    public class Greeter {
        public virtual void Greet() {
            Console.WriteLine("Hello, World!");
    public class LazyGreeter : Greeter {
        public override void Greet() {

    Greeter greeter = new LazyGreeter();

I'm not a huge fan of the Swift syntax; specifically, IMO, the declaration `class BaseGreeter: Greeter {}` hides where the implementation of `greet` is coming from. Without the method declaration it looks like it's being inherited from the protocol extension, when it's really not.

C# is one of those languages that I absolutely love and wish I had any reason or excuse to use. But it only seems used in .NET apps which are inherently harder to write than web apps which is why I learned Electron instead.

If I saw this in a code review, I would flag it for re-design. Mixing composition and inheritance especially in this way is definitely going to confuse anyone who doesn't read every line to figure out what's going on.

I don't think there's anything wrong with mixing composition and inheritance per se, if everything is obeying strict OOP principles (Open-Closed, etc.) If the mix-in was adding functionality to the base class, and then the subclass was there to specialize the behavior of the base class without breaking any of the contracts the base class itself makes (i.e. any unit test that works on a Greeter should work on a LazyGreeter) then I don't think anyone would be confused.

But in this case, OOP principles aren't being followed—the subclass is attempting to override stuff from the protocol, which the superclass didn't override. Essentially, the superclass made an assertion, by not overriding that method, that it wanted the default behavior from the protocol extension. The subclass, by overriding that behavior, is breaking the contract that the superclass declares.

Yeah, A static analyzer should be able to figure out what's going on and throw an error.

In general I’ve found protocol extensions to be an incredibly powerful concept. There’s a couple of WWDC talks about ‘protocol oriented programming’ that highlight some great, practical use cases.

I’ve run into the author’s problem a few times, and I’d like to think that this is just a bug or behaviour detail that a future Swift version could correct. Swift hasn’t quite matured fully yet, and this is a great example of that (these examples are becoming fewer every year though).

This is my favorite Swift gotcha :D

This bug bit me one time back before remote debugging came out when I was developing an app for a device that plugged into the lightning port. The only way to debug was to send log messages over the network to a log server running on my laptop, and the connected device sent messages to satellites where there was often a 10-minute gap in connectivity. And I couldn’t reproduce it in tests. That took some time to diagnose!

I like to bring this issue up if an interview candidate seems extremely bought in to protocol-driven development. I wouldn’t be surprised if any level of dev wasn’t aware of it, but would be impressed if anybody identified it.

Can anyone explain to me what the rationale for this is?

I can understand the advantage of using static dispatch, i.e. Greeter#greet(object), but I assume there is some mechanism that avoids calling Greeter#greet if BaseGreeter would implement greet and call BaseGreeter#greet(object) instead.

Why does extending a class which extends a protocol not make the extending class implement that protocol in Swift?

I wonder if this behavior is working as intended. It does look like a bug to the language itself, isn't?

It appears the correct action would have been to use <code>override func greet() { print("sup") }</code>.

To be fair, I was primed to really think about the code execution given he'd indicated there was a trap in there somewhere, so it certainly would not have been immediately obvious on first glance. But I think, generally developers understand that <code>override</code> is necessary to override code from a parent class.

Typically XCode helps out with this sort of thing – adding <code>override</code> where it seems like it should be added – but perhaps not when a parent class is using a default protocol implementation.

But again, in this scenario where a class is inheriting from another class, it's typically known you need to override the function in order to use your own implementation, so this does seem a bit contrived.

> It appears the correct action would have been to use <code>override func greet() { print("sup") }</code>.

That actually doesn't work because the greet function is implemented on an extension. You can only override class functions.

Oh, that's definitely weird then. Is there an RFC to have that fixed in some way?

I don't think there is. I think the code is functioning as expected — it's just written in a super confusing way. What should probably happen is that the compiler should throw an error about redefining a function in a super classes extension. I'm not a compiler engineer but a check for that seems like it would be intensive unless that information is codified in the AST somehow.

hmph. I agree, the compiler should probably not let you compile in that case. Funny enough this reminds me of "responder chain politics" in dynamically typed languages with duck typing.

There are some rules around this, as noted in https://nomothetis.svbtle.com/the-ghost-of-swift-bugs-future:

  IF the inferred type of a variable is the protocol:
    AND the method is defined in the original protocol
      THEN the runtime type’s implementation is called, irrespective of whether there is a default implementation in the extension.
    AND the method is not defined in the original protocol,
      THEN the default implementation is called.
  ELSE IF the inferred type of the variable is the type
    THEN the type’s implementation is called.

It's good that Periphery catches the unused code.

But if that's the only reason it catches the problem, I think it could have room for improvement. For example in one place the error could exist, but at a different place, the real function could be called because the variable is declared as a LazyGreeter. Then Periphery wouldn't catch the problem.

One way to fully catch it would be to give a warning if a base class implements a protocol but a derived class doesn't. I'm not sure how many false positives this would have. Possibly you might only do this if the derived class tries to override a function from the base class's protocol.

This seems like a problem with using class inheritance more than anything else.

Or a problem of mixing class inheritance with protocol conformance, perhaps.

I've run afoul of this a couple of times in my Swift delegate protocols. A really nice hack to implement Objective-C's optional protocol methods in Swift is to use a protocol extension to create a default method that can come back to bite you when you subclass objects that conform to that protocol.

Yep, the old `fatalError("You need to implement this!")`.

Interesting. Swift has been my primary language for a couple of years now, but I’ve never run into this, mainly because I use subclasses far, far less often than I did under Objective-C. If this bug had existed in Obj-C back when It was still my primary language it likely would have bitten me.

Providing a protocol with a default concrete implementation of the interface? That's not passing code review here.

Would I have caught the bug? Probably not. But it looks like bad form to me to provide that default implementation to Greeter, so please rewrite your code.

I’m curious to know why... Looks like typical mixin pattern, no?

An interface declaration is not the right place for implementation. If you want a default implementation, use a base class and inherit, overriding if you don't want the default.

This bug is now another good reason not to use default implementations on interfaces.

Protocol extensions are extremely powerful and safe if used correctly and not mixed with class inheritance as in this example.

Ok, thanks. Sounds like you are not a fan of mixins! :)

If the concept is that protocol requirements represent the "customisation points" of a protocol, shouldn't this apply equally to conforming classes and subclasses with inherited conformance? So I would be in favour of fixing this. Conversely, perhaps protocol extension methods etc not declared as protocol requirements could e.g. elicit a compiler warning when "overridden" by conforming classes/subclasses with inherited conformance (since they are not intended as customisation points)? I think these changes would aid reasoning about protocols and reduce bugs.

I don't know that you can really call this a bug? It just seems to be the design choice. Though I agree, it seems odd at first, and appears possibly accidental, it could have been on purpose.

My question to swifters: what if LazyGreeter had another method, say lazyGreet, and you typed it as Greeter? Then you called let greeter : Greeter = LazyGreeter(); greeter.lazyGreet();

Would you expect this to work or fail?

I'd expect it to fail.

In that sense, I assume its simply that extension methods override child overrides. And its just something you need to know. That can even have interesting utility in some scenarios.

In python, `greeter.lazyGreet()` would succeed, because python only has types at runtime. If you used mypy, you would get a warning for this. No warning would be issued for `greeter.greet()`, but since function dispatch is still done at runtime, this would call `LazyGreeter.greet()`.

I concur that the behaviour is a design decision, not a bug, but I think most programmers would in general prefer design decisions to bring the language closer to python.

I’m just a wee lad still dabbling in Swift, but I would say this would work, since the lazyGreet method is separate from the Greeter protocol.

How much different is this from slicing in C++?


  #include <iostream>
  using namespace std;

  struct Greeter {
    void greet() {
        cout << "Hello, World!" << endl;

  struct BaseGreeter: Greeter {};

  struct LazyGreeter: BaseGreeter {
    void greet() {
        cout << "sup" << endl;

  int main() {
    Greeter greeter = LazyGreeter();
    greeter.greet(); // Prints "Hello, World"

    return 0;

In C++ world this is expected behavior AND it's documented. But in swift, protocols cannot declare default implementations but it's possible to define implementation to protocol using extensions. So in C++, it might look like this

  struct Greeter {
    virtual void greet() {
      cout << "Hello, world!" << endl;
  struct BaseGreeter: Greeter {};
  struct LazyGreeter: BaseGreeter {
    void greet() override {
      cout << "sup" << endl;
  int main() {
    Greeter *greeter = new LazyGreeter();
    greeter->greet(); // In C++ prints "sup", but in Swift "Hello, World!"
    delete greeter;
    return 0;

The explanation is counterintuitive and it's one of those many Swift-ish things I've learned to be wary of. I find that Swift tries to be 'all things' and to often I get lost trying to cobble together a mental picture of what a class is supposed to be given all the various ways to annotate it.

Another "unused code bug" would be when a locally scoped variable which is not supposed to be there shadows the intended global variable.

It's just a matter of global scoping and precedence. But yeah, sharing notation between inheritance and extension is a tad bit reductionist.

I'm a little undecided on Swift extensions as a whole, and particularly protocol extensions. Maybe I'm just paranoid but it feels like it leads to a more complicated code layout.

I agree. I never worked with swift and had to look up the terminology. Most of what the article refers to maps to terms from C++ (which is already horribly complicated and offers way too many ways to shoot yourself in the foot) or Java. That PWT sounds an awful lot like a vtable. In C++ you mess up by forgetting to add "virtual" (luckily we recently got "override"), but it seems swift's protocols add another dimension to make it possible to mess up in.

It's weird how people preach over and over how arcane and cumbersome old languages like C(++) are, with the neckbeards defending it with "well you just have to adhere to this list of best practices and it's absolutely fine", and then when some new and hip language comes along and offers just as many traps, the same people giving the "old languages" crap suddenly go all "well it's bad design to do that! Just adhere to this list of best practices here..."

As someone who transitioned from Java to C#/.Net to Objective-C and finally to Swift, AMEN TO THAT!

I learned not to say anything as apparently every software engineer "generation" needs to follow something "hip" when very young. Some will grow to see the cycle as it repeats itself in front of them, others will die believing "my programming language was the best, you just had to stick to this list of best practices".

Also, "bad design" quite often means "not the way I'm used to and feel comfortable with".

There's an element of this even within the community of a single language, too. E.g., Apple's been doing Swift talks at WWDC where they sort of introduce their blow-your-mind-paradigm-of-the-year: "Protocol Oriented Programming" was two years ago; "Embrace Algorithms (subtitle: delete your for loops)" was this year.

It concerns me because these are such lush, ripe targets for cargoculting. The behavior in this article is problematic exactly because of the "Apple says we must not use inheritance for anything! I can just use a protocol extension; that's totally not inheritance" mindset.

> That PWT sounds an awful lot like a vtable

Correct; it's the same thing in essence.

This is an interesting demonstration of a hard edge of the language. It's not because Swift holds some sort of grudge against dynamic dispatch, but rather because it's trying to reconcile some subtly incompatible design goals:

1. Adding a default implementation for a protocol requirement shouldn't stop existing types that correctly conform to that protocol from compiling. This is a reasonable user expectation and makes protocol composition a more powerful feature.

2. "Retroactive conformance" should be possible: someone should be able to conform a type they didn't write to a protocol of their own creation. It's a nifty feature that makes Swift extensions very powerful but also sometimes difficult to reason about.

3. Classes should inherit protocol conformances from their superclasses. As some of the Swift core team members have explained, this is not something that absolutely had to be the case, but it seemed sensible initially.

Points (1) and (2) preclude the language from requiring the `override` keyword for the subclass `LazyGreeter` to override a default implementation of a protocol requirement not itself overridden in the superclass `BaseGreeter`, since that would mean that (1) and/or (2) would become impossible. Getting rid of (3) would remove the surprising behavior but it is rather late in the evolution of the language to make such a large change.

The way to reason about this behavior is to consider what are intended "customization points" in the language. It isn't really covered in The Swift Programming Language, but (although not intuitive) it's a fairly teachable concept:

A separate but similar issue exists with the distinction between default implementations of protocol requirements (methods declared in both a protocol and a protocol extension) versus extension methods (methods not declared in a protocol but found in a protocol extension). The former is dynamically dispatched and is considered a customization point for conforming types, whereas the latter can only be shadowed by conforming types but is not a customization point. As described here: https://nomothetis.svbtle.com/the-ghost-of-swift-bugs-future

(The Swift standard library actually uses this concept to its advantage. For instance, the inequality operator != is not a customization point for the Equatable protocol and is implemented in an extension method, guaranteeing that !(a == b) is always equivalent to (a != b) in the generic context.)

When implementing subclasses of a third-party open class, only open methods are customization points. In that case, Swift provides compile-time checking to prohibit overriding non-open public methods. This is possible because Swift does not support "retroactive inheritance" from a superclass as it does retroactive conformance to a protocol. Also, the language allows later versions of a third-party open class to stop your existing subclasses from compiling because of a conflict between a later-added superclass method and a pre-existing method in your subclass that now lacks the `override` keyword. In other words, the compiler-enforced prohibition is possible because points (1) and (2) above were not design goals for subclassing as they were for protocol conformance.

In the case illustrated by the present article, where protocols are used in class hierarchies, a third notion of customization points arises. As demonstrated here, a protocol requirement not overridden by a base class is not a customization point for a subclass. The protocol requirement can be shadowed by the subclass but not overridden. Consistent with the design goals enumerated above, this allows for the vendor of a library protocol to provide additional default implementations at a later point without breaking user code. (But if the vendor of a conforming superclass then implements an overriding implementation, your subclass would cease to compile just as it would for any other conflict between superclass methods and subclass methods.)

> Adding a default implementation for a protocol requirement shouldn't stop existing types that correctly conform to that protocol from compiling.

I would disagree with that; adding that default implementation is not a simply internal change. It flat-out changes compilibility; it makes invalid code into valid code:

    protocol P {
        func f()

    class C : P {}    // Error!

    protocol P {
        func f()
    extension P {
        func f() {}

    class C : P {}    // Okay
Given the trap demonstrated here, the converse should hold as well. Doubly so in light of the ways the compiler (mostly helpfully) enforces various aspects of subclassing, as you pointed out.

In many ways, protocols (right now at least) feel like Swift having its cake but not eating it: strictness floats around them in ways that do not help developers (ugh, PATs!) but is absent where it would:

    // This all compiles without any warnings?!
    protocol P {
        var i: Int { get set }

    protocol Q : P {
        var i: Int { get }

    class C : Q, P {
        var i = 10

    // Now make a protocol that inherits from another,
    // where both are class/AnyObject constrained

    struct S : Hashable {    // Swift 4.1, synthesized 
        let s: String
    extension S : Equatable {
        static func == (lhs: S, rhs: S) -> Bool {
            // Hashable semantics, smashable semantics. Hold my beer.
            return lhs.s.first == rhs.s.first

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