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I disagree with your point 3): the reason shipping is considered cheap, has to do with low fuel expenses and people ignoring other costs like pollution. Since cargo ships travel over 90% of their time in international waters, they are not bound by any pollution laws and can get away with burning the dirtiest (and thus cheapest) fuel they can find. For example, international shipping accounts for 8% of the global SO2 emissions.

Luckily, there is some movement to move to cleaner fuels instead [1], but that is slow progress.

[1] https://www.theicct.org/blogs/staff/end-era-heavy-fuel-oil-m...




Actual shipping long-distance, by ship, is unsuitable for perishable goods like these. Overland, or by air is how much of these goods will typically get to market.




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