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They are "extra" compared to being an employee. At least in the US when you become a contractor you no longer have employer subsidized healthcare. I imagine that Canadian employers might provide complementary insurance.

I specifically excluded medical and a few other things as reasonable. The list of things that don't seem like extra expenses, but rather just plain old expenses, to me are:

licensing, certification, life insurance, vacation, technology, bills, travel, parking, emergency funds, general and umbrella insurance, car maintenance, car fuel, carl detailing and regular cleaning, house maintenance (yard, inspections, upgrades, insurance, etc.) or rent

> licensing, certification

You're a business now and this is upkeep. Business expense. You would receive training and licensing under normal circumstances through your job.

> life insurance

This is provided as a benefit by most businesses to their employees. Talk to your HR. If you're working for yourself, you pay for it now.

> vacation

This should be obvious. No work, no pay. So vacation literally costs you double. Loss of time + the cost of vacation.

> technology

Computer equipment to do the actual work. Nobody will provide this to you for free.

> bills, travel, parking

Nobody will reimburse you for these expenses. If you have to visit the client on-site, they're on you.

> emergency funds

You must keep 3 month's of salary at a minimum sitting in a bank account at all times. This is a cost of doing business. There are ups and downs, don't expect contracts to come in immediately one after another. It doesn't happen.

> general and umbrella insurance

This should be obvious, you bear 100% of the cost of all types of insurance.

> car maintenance, car fuel, carl detailing and regular cleaning

If you use a car to get to the client, well, this is obvious.

> house maintenance (yard, inspections, upgrades, insurance, etc.) or rent

If your home is your office, all of these are now business expenses to some extent even if you had to do them before. You're spending double the time in your house. That will increase upkeep, electricity, etc.

In the US we don't have healthcare provided by companies as a law, some companies do provide ok insurance, but its far too expensive for what you get. Put that money in a medical savings account, and hopefully by the time you're old you'll live somewhere with decent healthcare.

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