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> how did forced busing lead to inner-city gangs?

White students (the vast majority) targeted the black students, who then formed gangs to protect themselves. There is a good multi-decade ethnography of the effects of various changes in public policy and society on one particular high school here: https://www.amazon.com/World-We-Created-Hamilton-High/dp/067...

The high school is anonymized, but iirc it's somewhere in Syracuse, NY.

Note that (at least afaik) that's not directly where our modern national-scale gangs come from, although White flight and the collapse of cities surely did contribute there also.




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