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Many other language runtimes (besides the Java JVM) are implemented as virtual machines:

Python's most widely used CPython implementation uses a VM: https://leanpub.com/insidethepythonvirtualmachine/read

Ruby "compiles the abstract syntax tree into lower-level byte code. This byte code is then run by the Ruby virtual machine.": http://blog.honeybadger.io/how-ruby-interprets-and-runs-your...

Perl 6 runs on the Parrot VM: https://perl6.org/archive/architecture.html (and I believe Perl 5 had a different stack-based VM)

These days, more interpreted languages use VMs than not. One notable language runtime that does not use a virtual machine is the Chrome V8 JavaScript engine, which I believe compiles JavaScript directly into machine code and then executes it.




V8 switched to an interpreter last year. It's a really interesting project: https://v8project.blogspot.com/2017/05/launching-ignition-an...


Rakudo Perl 6 no longer supports Parrot, and hasn't since before the first official release of the Perl 6 specification tests on 2015-12-25.

Most people run Rakudo Perl 6 on MoarVM, but it also runs on the JVM (with some caveats) and there is a JS based runtime that is being worked on.




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