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> Births below replacement rate

This is the opposite of a problem. Overpopulation is a huge global issue.

> Vast prison population and byzantine court system > Systemic Unemployment and Age Discrimination

You forgot discrimination based on ethnicity, nationality and, most notably, wealth.

Birth below replacement rate being a problem is usually in the context of the problem of "us dwindling versus them proliferating".

Every large ethnic group is at least slightly below replacement rate in the USA. Some more than others but it's not a good sign suggesting that people are generally struggling.

PS: Male:Female gender imbalance at birth + early deaths is why the replacement rate is over 2.0 lifetime births per woman.

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