As someone who has been reading compiler output for many years, it seems like these "flashes of inspiration" are relatively sparse compared to the bulk plain-stupid code they normally produce; once in a while you'll see something and think "that's clever... really clever", followed immediately by something so stupid it makes you wonder how it managed to generate such code. You can easily distinguish between that and human-written Asm that way. The latter may not have as much "peak cleverness" but certainly keeps up its average level of efficiency.
optasm <1.asm >2.asm
diff -U0 1.asm 2.asm|less
Looking at x86 asm source code, I have always been amazed at the relatively small number of commonly used instructions versus the large number of available instructions that are listed in the manuals. As someone learning asm, how would I ever be introduced to apropos usage of these uncommon instructions absent real-world examples?
if (w == 0 || h <= SIZE_MAX / w)
if (w != 0 && h <= SIZE_MAX / w)
One might, I suppose, decide that new_image will be exactly equivalent to the system malloc in this respect, in which case malloc(0) should be called when appropriate.
So you just want to make sure that w > 0 and w * h <= SIZE_MAX. But if w * h is large enough, it overflows, which would result in w * h <= SIZE_MAX being evaluated to true.
I agree that it is confusing though.
It might read a little funny, but it's actually quite correct with respects to what the code path should be expected to do. Valid dimensions should yield a valid pointer. Even if they're validly zero =)
Strictly wrong according to whom? At least not any C standard I know of.
Besides, even if the function did return a non-null pointer value (which it is allowed to do; the behaviour is implementation-defined) you aren't allowed to dereference it any more than a null pointer, making it hardly any more "valid", either.
It will probably break some assertions and assumptions though. Edit: I see that 8xde0wcNwpslOw (what a username) made the same point already.
float x = 1.3f;
return x == (float) 1.3f;
Couldn't reproduce clang calloc removal bug with that code. Tried clang 6.0, -O1, -O3.
Clang did remove calloc when there were no new_image calls where parameter "shade" could be zero. But that's to be expected, as it is a static function, only accessible from same compilation unit. Entirely correct behavior.
When it comes to the filed clang bug, I fail to see any bug at all: https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=37304
When calloc return value is not stored (or used), how could it be accessed or even freed at all? I think compiler is right to remove whole call.
[...] since C doesn't have a portable way to denote single precision float constants [...]
That sounds like the suffix 'f' which you're also using, how is that not a way to "denote single precision float constants"?
My draft copy of the C11 spec says:
An unsuffixed floating constant has type double. If suffixed by the letter f or F, it has type float. If suffixed by the letter l or L, it has type long double.
But this is not new syntax, I just looked in the most recent document I have.
Do you mean that C doesn't have a way to require IEEE 754 floating-point?
Hmm, you're right.
I think something similar bit me long ago and left me under impression f-suffix for a float is not portable.
Perhaps it's time to read the standard through once again...
Then again, explicit casts generate code that works on all compilers, standards compliant or not.
Edit: C99, 22.214.171.124.2: "The values of floating operands and of the results of floating expressions may be represented in greater precision and range than that required by the type; the types are not changed thereby."
So I guess explicit floating point casts are needed when explicit operations are wanted!
An example, `printf("%f", float_value)` will actually promote float_value to a double. Or calling a function from `math.h` with a float constant
- Since C++14, SIZE_MAX is the maximum size of any valid object; any object larger is ill-formed.
- calloc(SIZE_MAX, SIZE_MAX) is an attempt at creating an invalid object of size SIZE_MAX^2.
- Thus, calloc(SIZE_MAX, SIZE_MAX) should always return null. Shouldn't it?
Compilers often remove malloc calls even if the allocated object is modified and freed. But they shouldn't change the program's visible semantics.
What visible side effects there are for an allocation with an unused return value pointer (cast to a boolean)? There's no way to reference said memory, so there's no way it can affect execution of the abstract program.
If the allocation succeeded, there's no way to free the memory in any case. So even ignoring possible concurrent allocations elsewhere, it's useless for checking whether future malloc can succeed. Unless, of course, I missed something obvious.
The calloc return value _is_ used, to calculate the return value.
t->counter = calloc(n, sizeof(t->counter));
Not convinced your comment is relevant.
We avoid depending on exact floating-point comparisons, not because of any inherent indeterminism in that comparison, but because it does not generally yield exactly what our algorithm needs.
It's kind of a frequent misconception among kind-of-informed programmers that floating points are always "inaccurate" without fully understanding why. Your linked article is mostly describing floating point arithmetic where due to various reasons (order of operations, etc) it's hard to compare arithmetic results due to precision loss.
In this case though, you have a float assigned to a constant (1.3f) that is then compared with 1.3f again. There is no arithmetic done, and in fact, 1.3f has a non-ambiguous binary representation (it's the binary float point number that's closest to 1.3, a decimal number). Doing something along the lines of "1.3f == 1.3f" should always return true. The issue here is just the annoying issue of intermediate 80-bit representation vs 32-bit storage which isn't an intrinsic issue of floating point, but rather a language/platform oddity. As the article described this isn't actually an issue under x86-64 since compiled code don't use 80-bit intermediate representation there.
Another similar issue is reading/printing float point numbers out. It's a tricky thing to do, but there are lots of research done on it (e.g. see "dtoa" by David Gay) such that you can actually accurately print out floating point numbers and read them back and get the same binary representation.
To quote richard smith on a related issue (malloc(-1) succeeds):
* malloc is part of the implementation, so LLVM is allowed to optimize it to allocate memory from "somewhere else".
* In this case, LLVM allocates SIZE_MAX bytes of memory in some hypothetical space that exists only in its imagination.
* This allocation succeeds, so the pointer is non-null, and errno is not set.
* However, as a result, malloc need not actually be called at runtime.
Does this lead to silly results?
volatile unsigned char *p = malloc(w * h);
unsigned char * volatile p = malloc(w * h);
Changing the address where such a variable points to, will still be optimized away when it isn't used later on.