edit: Why there is no XPRICE for protein folding?
Back then, the mood kind of changed from “solve this and you have a Nobel waiting”: the general opinion was that progress was both significant and piecemeal, making it unlikely a Nobel will be awarded because “cracking it”would end up being to hard to assign to any three people.
Also as for how it’s different from what’s described in the paper, that’s the topic of the introduction of the paper. Rosetta uses both fragment assembly and co-evolution methods.
* Elucidating function by identifying similarity to other known structures
* Finding novel signaling mechanisms (see work on PHinder)
* Modeling co-receptor/ligand dynamics
* Identifying function of orphan receptors
* Working with ancestral genes by identifying descendant structure
* Classifying and clustering proteins based on solved structure
* Learning new biochemical mechanisms through active vs inactive state structures
As for why it took so long, it is and it is not fine-tuning. Getting RGNs to train _at all_ was a rather difficult process, and required a lot of finicking around. But since I got them working, I haven't actually spent all that much time fine-tuning them, and so I expect there to be a lot of low-hanging fruit in terms of optimizing performance (starting from the baseline I found.)