After adhering to the surface, the bacterium starts to divide and encapsulate itself for protection against the host organism’s immune response. This layer of protective matrix, mostly consisting out of polysaccharides, also shields the bacteria from effective antibiotic treatment. The first stage of the biofilm formation is complete and subsequently the present bacteria start to form colonies increasing the internal pressure in the biofilm, which starts to expand.
If you've been vaccination against both of these diseases and are exposed, your immune system will eventually mount an attack against the bacteria, but already has antibodies floating around that inactivate the toxin, which is what is responsible for the severity of the diseases.
Ulcers, in particular, was huge. So much of previous advice for dealing with them was just flat out wrong.
If this pans out, I'm very interested to see where it goes next.
My understanding would think diet change could work. But only if you manage to starve the bacteria. Anti biotics are much more straight forward and effective here. Obviously finish your dose.
That said, I've never had an ulcer, so have not actually read much. Other than finding it was none of the root causes I heard growing up.
It's not a cure, but they are studying it to help symptoms. I'm fairly certain you can't buy B. Fragilis commercially anyways.
Gangrene can be treated in part by using a hyperbaric chamber to increase oxygen content of the body. Presumably, if our tissues were all oxygenated, gangrene would never happen.
Specifically kefir/filmjölk. Buy a bottle, take a serving in the morning, and at night if you like/can afford.
I've turned my life around. Friends have stopped proton pump inhibitors/antacids like Prilosec/Omeprezole, etc, because of this simple lifestyle switch (one serving per day). I take many more.
If you have an instapot or yogurt maker, for $2.5, you can make a gallon of yogurt which lasts me about 1-2 weeks. I started my culture with a tub of Activia that my sister left in the fridge ~ a year ago.
Kimchi is also cheap to make yourself, although it does take a bit more prep.
I don’t think any company wants to take on the liability of feeding you a bacteria with a ~20% mortality rate (the BF) and trying to ensure their cultures never get contaminated with a more toxogenic strain -and- that no one takes it the wrong way (oh, did you bite that capsule open and get the B. fragilis into your peptic ulcer...?).
The above text in the article contains a link to an abstract. The abstract does not talk about piercing the mucus lining. It talks about biofilm.
Biofilm is essentially a large colony of bacteria, so large it begins terraforming the body in order to create conditions conducive to self preservation. I have seen a number of articles over the years on how to successfully break up biofilm and thereby reverse antibiotic resistance. They generally boil down to finding some means to make the environment less acidic. There is generally a strong correlation between inflammation, acidity and infection.
This is probably not a simple relationship. The terraforming activities of biofilm suggests bacteria will foster acidity to promote inflammation etc. So the relationship is interactive. It is not as simple as "acidity causes antibiotic resistance".
I don't have these studies at my fingertips. I have no plans to try to dig them up. I am leaving the comment so that other people can look into that if they are interested.
I wasn't reading this stuff in order to support debate points in an online forum. I have a genetic disorder that predisposes me to developing antibiotic resistant infections and I was trying to suffer less.
So, you can take this comment as testimony that these studies exist and may have bearing on the topic of discussion here.
But I am not going to debate this with people who are inevitably monstrously disrespectful towards me and who act like the last 17 years of my life did not happen because I can't link you to a study. The reality is they don't get any less monstrously disrespectful when I do link to studies and supporting articles and explain my thinking etc. So I don't plan to play that game today.
TLDR: If you are interested, you might go looking up studies on how to break up biofilm. They do exist and they contain potentially useful clues to how to stop this kind of colonization of the gut by hostile invaders.
Biofilms do a number of things - they can help promote between-organism signaling that can promote the upregulation of resistance, they can physically protect from antibiotic penetration (one of many resistance mechanisms), and they can potentially change the behavior of the bacteria itself, which will have impacts on the antibiotic's efficacy (for example, bacteriostatic antibiotics are less of a problem if bacteria aren't proliferating anyway).
First, invaders would toss a grenade into a room, stunning all occupants, then promptly rush in and capture them at gun point.
Then people began creating a safety zone in the corner with sand bags. When the grenade hit the floor, you dive for cover. After it goes off, you stand up with your weapon, getting the upper hand on the soldiers entering the room.
Then they began tossing the grenade without pulling the pin. People dove for cover and waited for the grenade to go off. Meanwhile, you promptly enter and now you have the jump on them.
So then people would hear the grenade hit the floor and look to see if the pin had been pulled before deciding how to react.
When antibiotics were introduced, the world announced the end of disease. Now, we have antibiotic resistant super bugs.
Antibiotic resistance is an arms race. It is probably not one dimensional. If infectious process were one dimensional, then the initial prediction that antibiotics heralded the ended of disease should have been accurate.
But the only thing I am trying to suggest is that studies exist and people who are interested can look them up for themselves, read them and draw their own conclusions. I am sick to death of trying to discuss what I think about such things. It is never a positive experience.
I just remembered that I have indeed heard about biofilms and their ability to prevent antibiotic activity. However, I have only heard about them in the context of secretions by specific kinda of bacteria (e.g. pseudomonas aeruginosa) that form this wall around foreign objects preventing the efficacy of antibiotics. It is why we have to change out certain catheters after a specified amount of time.
I think the traditional mental model is “evolve a slightly different target molecule so abx can’t target them anymore,” which yeah, vastly understated the complexity.
You join a discussion, refuse to provide evidence, and pre-emptively accuse those who disagree with you of being monsters.
This is a very good community with few monsters, typically dealt with expediently by both the community and excellent moderators.
I would expect someone who has been through this before to have some pretty good sources, but you share none. This indicates that they are weak and lacking or do not exist. You also share frustration at people not accepting your personal anecdote as data. This further reduces your credibility. You seek to poison the well and insult those with differing points of view, and refuse to engage in dialogue. Perhaps you'll find your monster in the mirror.
As written your comment is both manipulative and lacking value. It's offensive and insulting to this community.
I'm glad you found something that works for you. If you would give this community a chance you would find it very open minded if you approach it rationally. Hacks, like anecdotes, tend to be exceptions or new discoveries.
Further, your comment is filled with personal swipes in violation of community guidelines.
Edit: Here is a link to that incident so people can see for themselves: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=16201406
The only medical claim I am making here is that there are studies about biofilm that might interest people. I am tired of people feeling like it is open season on me because the reason I am aware of these studies is because of my health issues. That doesn't seem to be a standard applied to any other member. I am not remotely the only person here who has a serious medical condition and manages it with diet, lifestyle or alternative remedies. I am not trying to promote those remedies here. I do, in fact, have my own blog as an outlet for talking about that stuff elsewhere. That should not be reason to say I am not allowed to mention that studies exist and if I do someone is completely justified in attacking me or suggesting I am making stuff up about my medical situation.
You are free to think I am completely deluded about my medical situation and imagined the whole thing. It has zero bearing on the fact that studies of biofilm exist and people can look them up if they are interested.
Here is the previous discussion where every single reply to me had nothing to do with my point and just chose to get into my personal stuff until I announced I was walking away: