The article points out that both the QUIC and TCP implementations they tested are using CUBIC congestion control, but that's not enough information, because the article also points out that QUIC is using "more aggressive parameters." It's tough to say which parameters are better, but what's unsaid is that a TCP implementation could change their parameters and get the same congestion control results as QUIC.
The supposed poor performance of QUIC on resource-limited mobile devices is, as they point out, because it's a user space implementation that is thus more expensive. If QUIC becomes popular, I assume there will be kernel implementations that are as resource efficient as TCP. Meanwhile, it's a lot easier to to experiments (such as tuning CUBIC parameters!) when you don't have to reboot to install a new version.
It's also quite common for various TCP congestion controllers to completely fail to saturate busy links, because of various limitations. If that happens, it might be that QUIC is able to fill the empty space, thereby taking "more than its fair share" only because TCP wasn't going to use that share anyway. Since the article doesn't even say which TCP implementation it's comparing against, and doesn't say what happens when the TCP sessions are competing only amongst themselves with no QUIC present, it's hard to say what's going on.
The funny thing about all this is that, if they use the same congestion control (which seems to be the intention given that they are both using CUBIC and Google is separately trying to fix congestion control via BBR), they should both be about equally fair. The performance benefits of QUIC are not even congestion control related!
[Disclaimer: I've worked with some of the people who wrote BBR and QUIC, so I'm biased.]
The performance effects of QUIC implementing congestion control in userland are more interesting. OTOH, QUIC allows deploying new features to users (through cronet) in an efficient way. TCP does not.
> [Disclaimer: I've worked with some of the people who wrote BBR and QUIC, so I'm biased.]