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Well, technically that's possible with HTML, too. In addition to semantic tags like <summary>, <nav> or <article> we could use IDs and classes and define those as the API contract.

It's just that nobody uses HTML like this and hence IDs and classes in particular have turned into being almost exclusively used for visual / UI aspects of a website (using CSS).

There's nothing in principle though that keeps you from mandating that specific IDs and classes have a meaning beyond what's represented visually and that those signifiers therefore have to both stay the same and must not be used for entities other than those they were meant for.

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