A compiler takes in a stream of symbols and translates it to another stream of symbols. Common compiler techniques include intermediate tree representations, parsing of symbols, various recursion-based optimization passes on the intermediate representation and phases, and various serialization techniques. Probably the most distinctive characteristic of a compiler is the existence of a usually-tree-based (though not always) intermediate representation that is neither the input language nor the output language, though in some cases you can optimize past this. (You won't get good program-size-scaling this way, but if your task is constrained it can be a good choice.)
There exist no software engineering terms that have universally agreed-upon meanings. If you wish to insist that a compiler must maintain semantic meanings, that is a valid choice, but I reject the idea that it is the only choice, and I reject the idea that it's even a good choice. A definition of compiler that focuses on the use of the distinctive techniques of compilers, the parsing, the intermediate representation, the manipulation of the intermediate representation for some effect, the re-serialization to some format, is much more useful for almost any use outside of a classroom. (Which I do not wish to impugn; that is a valid use.) Because, to hammer it home one more time, the techniques you learn in compiler class is useful all over the place and I have concrete experience (as does Stevey) that way way too many people have never learned those techniques. You aren't going to help anybody learn more about these techniques if you insist that the only "compiler" is a radical subset of the things that use compilation techniques. You do nobody any favors by standing on your definition and perpetuating the idea that these are esoteric techniques of limited use. (Note I did not say you believe the idea that these are esoteric techniques of limited use, I said you are perpetuating it.)
Notepad isn't a compiler that I can see; that's a strawman. It's a continuum, not a binary yes/no, but it uses basically no compilation techniques, and I wouldn't be surprised that at least the initial implementation used none at all. The original was limited to 64KB, IIRC, and at that point even on the computers of the era you could just directly manipulate an array. No intermediate representation distinct from the input, no parsing, no serialization, it's not checking any of the checkboxes.
"A compiler takes in a stream of symbols and translates it to another stream of symbols. Common compiler techniques include intermediate tree representations, parsing of symbols, various recursion-based optimization passes on the intermediate representation and phases, and various serialization techniques."
The second sentence is a good definition. The first sentence is probably the cause of the disagreement -- it's so vague as to possibly describe a C compiler, as well as a Chinese Room, a signal detection algorithm, a kid doing his math homework, etc. I'm not quite sure what you call something that transmutes a stream of symbols into other symbols that is precise, but i feel "things that transmute symbols" covers a very broad class of things that are not compilers as well. Someone doing their chemistry homework, for instance.
I mean, yes, a compiler will transmute symbols, but it's the second sentence is how we distinguish that from, say, a DSP. When you start asserting things like "builds an intermediate structure representing the parse tree", then the definition starts going somewhere useful.
"Necessary but not sufficient," and all that.
I think we also disagree about the point of definitions. I think they're to make communication clearer. Not to motivate people to do something. I think there are better ways of doing that than to obfuscate definitions, which generally have well understood industry and academic meaning.
But I think these are things we'll just have to agree to disagree about... I just hope your definition of "agree" and "disagree" are the same as mine. :-)
Calling bitmaps a computer language is a bit of a stretch.