Uhhhhh. This sounds like a kind of silly thing to say, when you just described the jvm. Except for the part where there is a common stdlib.
However since Java 8, the java.lang numeric classes do support unsigned arithmetic.
Yes it is a bummer that byte is signed, requiring extra math to simulate unsigned.
Yeah, and it's huge and interconnected (just see how much they had to do to get a java.base module and how large that still is). And the JVM has lots of specifics around threading, GC, OOP, classes, security model, etc. And many of those specifics don't translate to the needed safe-by-default, minimal-by-default bytecode for the web and other targets.
I could really go on for a long time about why applets failed and why JVM bytecode and the JVM runtime are terrible for the web (and any generic bytecode that doesn't target the web can't really be that generic). What is silly is ignoring all of this. Think about why there are already C++-to-WASM compilers after such a short time and no reasonably-usable and maintained C++-to-JVM compilers.