Reading again of the abstract, allow me to add that it's an optimization beyond structures such as Btrees which are already not really decipherable datasets to the naked eyes. So any optimization in a space that's not designed to be human-legible can take whatever shape, and this is certainly a welcome achievement!
Can you expand on this bit? I'm not sure I understand what you mean
Since writing this comment I have text-to-speech'd the whole of the article and I listened to it one afternoon over smooth classical music and I have come to appreciate the fact that many computers will have neural network processors like tensor processors or at the very least really good GPU, making it all the more likely that such algorithms [especially used in the specific case of fault intolerant data organization and file hierarchy] will actually not require so much computational effort as traditionally believed.