1. Human biases: Every mental model is built upon some human bias.
2. How incentives work: Understanding the motivation behind why people do what they do.
3. Mental thought construction: Understanding how the brain gathers, processes and stores information.
4. Biology: How we've evolved (and haven't) from stone age times and how that still influences us today.
This is by no means exhaustive but are just some of the topics I've found most useful. That said, here are the best resources I've found:
- The Art Of Thinking Clearly by Rolf Dobelli: Taught me about human biases. Reads like a directory of most biases.
- Influence by Robert Cialdini: Taught me about incentives and a whole lot more.
- Metaphors We Live By by George Lakoff: Taught me about mental thought construction.
- Poor Charlie's Almanack by Charles Munger: Taught me about many things but most importantly good decision making.
- Sapiens by Yuval Harari and his course https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLE-kxvSEhkzDEmLQx3RE0...: Taught me about how we've evolved as humans and how we haven't.
- Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman: Taught me more about human biases.
- Predictably Irrational by Dan Ariely: Taught me more about how and why we make decisions and what good decisions are.
The thing I've really started to notice is it's not enough to know or read about mental models, you have to ruthlessly apply them. This is tough when even knowing about your biases doesn't stop you from still being affected by them.
The only reason I even recognize many of those items as useful is because I encountered them in university courses.
* Mental Models: The Best Way to Make Intelligent Decisions (113 Models Explained) - https://www.farnamstreetblog.com/mental-models/
Mental Models I Find Repeatedly Useful
Not the best, and I only really use the first one in the book (Eisenhower Matrix), but I found that alone to be worth the price (you could just google that one though). The rest of it is useful as examples of the wide variety of model types and types of things that can be modelled.
Thinking in Systems: A Primer, is a great book that I highly recommend. It's one of those books that serves as a great introduction to the subject of creating models of systems, and it's neither too long, nor overly specific on any particular subject. By the end of it, you'll know roughly enough to be able to know what you want to know next, in regards to system models.
This blog post is more like a reference resource, and I think it's worth looking over and picking out whatever interests you: https://medium.com/@yegg/mental-models-i-find-repeatedly-use...
EDIT: because my formatting was atrocious.
Deconstruction with lit crit is somewhat effective.
Deconstruction to develop a mental model is EXTREMELY effective.
It seems rather easy to use deconstruction to see things that aren't really there.
Try probing the system so that it conforms to your model and revise it when new evidence is apparent.
I'm not a philosopher, but I do enjoy reading and learning about post modernism.
Isn't a large point of this book that you actually can't confirm a "ground truth"?
Which Sapiens exactly do you mean? Is it an article, a book, a documentary movie, a presentation such as a TED talk? Which is the full title?
I suppose you mean the book "Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind" (ISBN 978-0062316097), but I'm honestly not sure if I guessed correctly.
(Or in this case: an ISBN, which serves the same purpose. Unambiguous references are no longer an open issue. Open issue are: the lazyness to not use them, and persistent references (until either Bittorrent or IPFS is fully deployed).)
This was a companion book for a very popular MOOC called "Learning How to Learn".
This gives you insights and practical advice on learning and it works for any subject, not just math & science.
I read it again every now and then. Explains cognitive biases, prospect theory and happiness.
I'd also say "How to Solve It" by Polya helps create a good mental model for problem solving that can apply to most any situation that requires structured thinking.
The most memorable use of the phrase to me is Charlie Munger's "Poor Charlie's Almanack". If I recall correctly, whenever he makes a big decision, he runs through a checklist of each of his MMs, to see if that way of thinking gives him any insight into the matter at hand. The key thing, though, is that it isn't just limited to human psychology. He supposedly has a great interest in a whole variety of fields. A Renaissance Man. For example, I recall him using thermodynamics as a metaphor for explaining some seemingly-unrelated topic (e.g. business analysis).
The most general mental models I have seen come from consultants who hop from industry to industry (SWOT for a business, of the BCG matrix) but even they are specific to firms and companies. Broadly speaking, these are often adaptable to any group effort.
There are a lot of books on these mental models or "strategy frameworks"
Seeking Wisdom: From Darwin To Munger
2. Extreme Ownership by Jocko Willink
I think it's a little more to the point compared to Extreme Ownership.
It occurred to me that consciousness may also be a hierarchy of holons. A whole can only be known from a "holistic" perspective. Any attempt to reduce it to parts to understand the whole destroys the character of the whole. This may help explain why reductionist science has had little success in explaining consciousness.
I've set it up on a daily cron and now I receive every day a cognitive bias on my e-mail and read it on breakfast.
So far some biases really stuck with me and I notice myself referring to them every time I'm thinking about something.
With the results I have only for a couple of weeks I'm definitely planning to use it all my life.
Here is the code: https://github.com/zuzuleinen/bibi
This post has a good list of models:
Tren’s weekly ‘dozen things I’ve learned from foo’ series is generally high quality.
It's a total hagiography with some dubious historical claims, but a fun and interesting read nonetheless.
Dives into the thoughts behind John Boyd’s OODA loop. Really good book.
This is a good primer https://alistapart.com/article/liminal-thinking