Just read Heinlein's "The Moon is a Harsh Mistress", published in '66, and there are a couple of mentions of "neural nets".
I remember adapting backpropagation network code from German C't magazine to HiSoft Pascal on ZX Spectrum. Only a few bits worth of inputs, but watching it run and converge was fascinating.
It also saw the first application of backpropagation to neural networks.
30 years later:
Look at the first result.