My answer to your question is math. Learn to read and write proofs. Any intro to proofs will do: those employed in discrete math, the ones in analysis, the diagram chasing ones, whatever...Working with math proofs will definitely straighten out your thinking and whip your mind into shape.Some suggestions to get you started:Book of Proof by Richard Hammack: https://www.people.vcu.edu/~rhammack/BookOfProof/Discrete Math by Susanna Epp: https://www.amazon.com/Discrete-Mathematics-Applications-Sus...Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics by Chartrand et al: https://www.amazon.com/Mathematical-Proofs-Transition-Advanc...How to Think About Analysis by Lara Alcock: https://www.amazon.com/Think-About-Analysis-Lara-Alcock/dp/0...Learning to Reason: An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations by Nancy Rodgers: https://www.amazon.com/Learning-Reason-Introduction-Logic-Re...Mathematics: A Discrete Introduction by Edward Scheinerman: https://www.amazon.com/Mathematics-Discrete-Introduction-Edw...The Real Analysis Lifesaver: All the Tools You Need to Understand Proofs by Rafi Grinberg: https://www.amazon.com/Real-Analysis-Lifesaver-Understand-Pr...Linear Algebra: Step by Step by Kuldeep Singh: https://www.amazon.com/Linear-Algebra-Step-Kuldeep-Singh/dp/...Abstract Algebra: A Student-Friendly Approach by the Dos Reis: https://www.amazon.com/Abstract-Algebra-Student-Friendly-Lau...That's probably plenty for a start.

 A more graduate-level book but one I found pleasing:A Logical Approach to Discrete Mathematics: https://www.amazon.com/Logical-Approach-Discrete-Monographs-...And a more pragmatic approach to the same material (with a lot of cross-over in terms of proof-style, etc):Programming in the 1990s: http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9780387973821But one I particularly enjoyed early on was written for liberal-arts level students of maths (who might've been traumatized by maths in the past):Introduction to Graph Theory: https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Graph-Theory-Dover-Mathe...It will actually get you into writing proofs in set theory within the first couple of chapters.
 Oh gosh the equational logic rabbit hole.To add to the fire: http://mathmeth.com/
 great, thank you!

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