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I have worked in a domain where "it is often a compiler error" -- scientific simulation. In particular, Intel's C and Fortran compilers generally produce the fastest binaries on Intel hardware but they also seemed to break builds a lot. The answer to "the validation suite no longer passes" was often "use this specific point release of the compiler."

I wasn't personally developing the core simulation software itself at the time, just building it from source and writing extensions. I don't know if these frequent breakages were actually outright compiler bugs or just relying on conventions that weren't guaranteed by language specs. But I do know that switching to one particular blessed compiler revision was often the fastest way to pass validation and move on to your actual research problems.

Having to use a specific point release of the compiler to work does not necessarily means later version have a bug. It could also mean that the program is (accidentally) depending on implementation details that are not guaranteed by the language, and that the compiler is supposed to be free to change behavior about. For languages like C with a significant amount of undefined behavior, that's actually quite likely.

IIRC the intel compiler has the equivalent of gcc -ffast-math on by default, i.e. it explicitly breaks some the C and IEEE 754 floating point specs in some places in exchange for performance.

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