Tenpura (commonly seen as 天麩羅 or 天婦羅) is one example, but also karuta (a card game, commonly 歌留多 or 加留多) and konpeitō (a confection, commonly 金平糖). The the case of karuta, at least, it feels enough like a regular Japanese word that it undergoes a morphophonological transformation (rendaku e.g. uta-garuta) typically reserved for the native Japanese lexicon (i.e. not Sino-Japanese or other loanwords).
Tabako (タバコ、たばこ、煙草) is another well-entrenched Portuguese loan, with particularly wacky kanji: they mean "smoke grass", which is reasonable enough, but you'd never guess the characters are read "tabako".
The other kind of ateji is when kanji are used like an alphabet eg 亜米利加 (A me ri ka). The second kind is mainly used for abbreviations in modern Japanese eg 米 is equivalent to writing "US" in English.
Forgive me if it seemed as though I was talking about usage ratios; I was merely saying that it's not uncommon to see them written in the kanji stylized form; in the case of konpeito, however, the kanji is by far the most common form (probably because the character semantics fit well). 天 also literally means tempura in a variety of derivative words.
But mostly I was just getting at how fundamentally integrated portuguese loanwords are in Japanese in general. shabon-dama (bubbles), kappa (raincoat), kabocha (pumpkin), and other's. Juban (a traditional undergarment) is probably the most surprising.
- The Japanese word for bread is "パン" (pronounced 'pan')
- The Korean word is "빵" (pronounced 'ppang')
- Both are loaned from the Portuguese 'pão' (bread).
- In Chinese many kinds of bread are called <something>包 (<something>'bao') or 包<something> ('bao'<something>). Examples: 面包 'Mianbao' (bread) or 包子 'Baozi' (steam bun). Note the 包 'bao' sounds a bit like the Portuguese 'pão'. However, it turns out this is completely unrelated and 包 means something more like "package" (or so all the translators and dictionaries I could find claim) so most people believe that this is a false cognate and not a loanword like in Korean and Japanese.
- Despite this, the Chinese 包 'bao' has ended up in Korean as a kind of loan word as well, but because it seems to mean the same thing as 빵'ppang' and is used in similar ways in Chinese as 빵'ppang' might be used in Korean and for various pronunciation reasons in Korean, Chinese origin breads are also called 빵'ppang'.
- The proper translation for 包 into Korean is more likely 꾸러미 'kkuleomi' (package).
- So....Chinese-Korean breads are often called <something>빵 such as 찐빵 'jjinppang' (steamed bun)) even though the correct Chinese name for the Chinese-Korean 찐빵 in China is called a 馒头 'Mantou'.
- However, in Korean, a 만두 'Mandu' is a different but related food, a dumpling, and in Japanese a 饅頭 'Manjou'.
- Going West instead of East from China, the 'Mandu' as a food goes back a thousand years and spread all over the Silk Road, so local variants are found all over Turky, Persia, Afghanistan, Mongolia and so on are called the same thing and may have been the basis for the famous Russian "Pelmeni" and Polish "Pierogi" and various other dumplings known around the world.
And thus the great bread-dumpling belt is enjoyed around the world to this day and was established by explorers, wanderers, conquerors and traders.
Mandu, in turn, comes from various Turkic languages, eg. in Turkish they're manti. But in Mongolia, the savoury meat-filled dumpling everyone else nearby calls a manti/manty/mandu/... is a booz, because they borrowed the word from the Chinese baozi instead, but in Chinese this style of dumpling is now called a jiaozi, which is the source of the Japanese gyoza 餃子, and on it goes...
...which is called 만쥬 manjyu in Korean, following Japanese sound. I had no idea the word was related to "mandu".
Dumplings go round and round...
This hit me really close because a local Afghan place near me started serving 'Mantoo' which turns out to be kind of a meat dumpling which got me thinking about it recently. This post today just fed into it even more.
There is a bird we call `swallow` in English, which has the same name as the action `to swallow`. I looked up these in an etymological dictionary and found that they have distinct, yet similar roots.
The Sino-Japanese word for the bird is 燕(tsubame). The action of swallowing can be written properly as 嚥下 (enge), in the same register as its antonym 嘔吐 (outo).
You can get Bánh bao in Vietname, which if I'm not wrong just means "bread bread", but in two different languages.
Galician and Spanish retain the non-nasal form 'pan'.
As other comments explain, Japanese pan is pronounced not with [n] but with a uvular nasal, which is close to "ng" in English "king", so Japanese word-final "n" is commonly imported to Korean as ㅇ ("ng").
The story is that this baking technique came about as a necessity during World War II to save energy, although I'm not sure if that's actually true.
The two metal bars down the sides with the prongs sticking out were connected directly to the AC plug (with a switch that turned them off with the lid open, of course). You pushed the hot dog ends onto the prongs and closed the lid. Your household AC went directly through the hot dogs, and 60 seconds later they were done!
I think maybe many parents do a disservice to vegetables by being a bit too sparing with the oil and salt, but that's just been my guess. What's your intuition about this phenomenon?
So yes, it is definitely partially due to poor cooking but it also can come from generally low quality of vegetables. This is unfortunately very common in the US. The same unfortunately is applicable to fish for a lot of people.
That is why our system of cooking revolves around spices which both disguise the fact that the vegetables are not fresh as well as act as natural preservatives.
The best cuisine to utilise frozen vegetables is Indian - I do not know of any other cuisine that will pass them off as edible.
Broccoli, beans, stuff like that.
They are picked closer to the ideal time and don't suffer from the shipping time. And then they aren't cooked like canned vegetables.
And of course there are lots of vegetables that don't take freezing well and nothing will stand up to an excessive number of defrost cycles. But frozen vegetable doesn't automatically mean bad.
However, individual variance swamps large group trends so it's easy to find children who love vegetables from an early age and adults who are hyper sensitive and hate the taste.
The name "Japan" is thought to have come to Europe by way of Portugese traders as well.
If you've formed an opinion on tempura only from eating it in North America, I highly recommend exploring it if you visit Japan as it barely compares. There's a whole range of tempura-dedicated restaurants, from fast food up through multiple Michelin stars.
And it's not just about Lent. Green beans are generally cut open on one rim of the pod, which makes them look like small gutted fish.
In my grandmas house, we used to eat a different version, made with eggplant slices.
I didn't know about vindaloo!
It is pronounced with 'm' like in てんぷら (tenpura) when followed by a 'p', 'b', or 'm.'
edit: more fun facts
'n' is pronounced with 'ng' like in てんき (tenki) when followed by 'k' or 'g'
It is pronounced as a nasalized sound of the proceeding vowel when followed by 's', 'h', 'y', w', or a vowel. こんばんは (konbanwa) is pronounced kombaáwa (nasalized á).
But if you still doubt, I grabbed the first three audio recordings of "tempura" I could find in videos. All are very clearly bilabial nasals (i.e. "m"):
Now, maybe having modeled that, when they spoke at normal speed it was an "m" sound and, not listening for it, I never heard it.
(Also: They never corrected my pronunciation of ん, which was consciously an "n" sound. They did correct my pronunciation of other things, like failing to subvocalize vowels between unvoiced consonants (I remember a long and arduous exchange in which my professor pronounced "hito" (人), and I tried to mirror it back, imagining that my problem was in not emphasizing the second syllable enough rather than failing to subvocalize the "i"). And I think that I say "input" with an "n" sound. But maybe I'm incapable of saying "input" the way I normally do in speech when I'm actually thinking about it. :P )
Maybe it's not a romanization?
In this case it is a romanization of an old Chinese-style Japanese transliteration (pre-katakana, so it reads as nonsense) of a Portuguese transliteration of a Latin word.
It's not even a round trip like anime (Latin -> ???->->->??? -> English -> Japanese -> English); but even anime got a proper romanization, it just turned out closer.
Note that this happens in Japanese when /n/ (ん) occurs before syllables starting with /b/ (shimbun 新聞), /p/ (sampo 散歩), and /m/ (sammai 三枚).
Also note that there are regional, socioeconomic, and register differences regarding whether/when this /n/ to /m/ transition occurs in a speaker's actual pronunciation.
'impossible' and 'improper' is 'in-' modified by the 'p'.
C.f. "Shimbashi", "kampai", etc. It's not an ad-hoc thing being done for "tempura".