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Things that are difficult in visual languages:

- Humans are centered around linear communication. Spoken language is essentially linear, with good use of a stack of concepts. This story-telling mode maps better on a linear, textual representation than on a graphical representation. When provided with a graph, it is difficult to find the start and end. Humans think in graphs, but communicate linearly.

- Graphs are rather hard to manipulate. You invariably need a mouse, which is a rather slow instrument. Using keyboard combo's is certainly possible, but is difficult to make intuitive.

- A textual representation can be left in a syntactical incoherent position while editing. For example, I can have non-matching braces. This proves very helpful in quickly editing code. Visual programming paradigms generally require a coherent structure, in order to keep them editable.

- UI builders are extremely valuable, but this is technically not visual programming. UI builders have problems as well. Complex UIs are often parameterised (the fields themselves are variable). By offering a visual context and a textual context, the coding experience can become incoherent and more difficult to learn.

- Programming is very context dependant. A programmer focusses on a specific part, mentally forming a high-dimensional representation of the algorithm at hand and the larger context. Using a visual representation possibly competes with the mental map. Also, it forces upon the reader a scoping.

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