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Interesting article, but I had a hunch, and after some research, I found that the first use of "type" was actually in 1945(ish), in Konrad Zuse's Plankalkül[1]. I wouldn't be surprised if there's something even earlier.

My hunch was motivated by the fact that Frege had already made the very insightful distinction between functional and non-functional types in the 1890s, and that type theory had already been around for a fairly long time (at least since Russell and Whitehead's Principia). In other words, just about everything had already been formalized, you just needed to have someone come in and say "computer programs are better behaved when data has a type". In the case of Plankalkül, the types of variables are stored as single bits[2].

[1] http://zuse.zib.de/file/zuse_archive-0233.pdf?id=http%3A//zu...

[2] http://www.cs.ru.nl/bachelorscripties/2010/Bram_Bruines___02...

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