Yes there are firewalls/proxies which check for validity of HTTP over port 80, though others don’t bother, or just look at the first bit of traffic for each connection.
HTTPS goes over port 443, and I imagine there are some firewalls somewhere or another which block it altogether. Probably not enough of them to worry too much about though.
Some firewalls at least make sure that traffic over port 443 does a proper SSL handshake.... after that the data is encrypted, so they have no way to tell just what’s going through.
Some firewalls can track this.