It's pretty dated, but the state of containers has only improved since 2015, and this was usable for Google Hangouts (video) and YouTube all the way back then.
^ This got a push less than 24 hours ago
^ This is the Dockerfile, in a repo full of Dockerfiles for other things you might have had trouble putting into a container.
I tried this myself and had problems because (I think) I was on a very old LTS/stable distro with a necessity to use pretty old Docker release. This person is a maintainer on the Docker core team, so is most definitely tracking newest releases.
I use Chrome in a headless setup with Kubernetes and Docker (Jenkins with kubernetes-plugin) but it's not Headless Chrome, it's Xvfb that makes my setup headless. Chrome itself works great in a container. It's one excellent way to keep it from eating up gobs of RAM like it does: just give it less RAM (cgroups).
If you said "chroot jail" on purpose because you don't want Docker, I don't know why exactly, maybe because you don't think you can run graphical apps in a Docker container, but it's not true. You can!
You could also cobble something together and do it without Docker, but I'm not recommending that, I just saw this and thought it would be exactly what you're looking for. Hope this helps!