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COAP endpoints on IKEA Trådfri (bitsex.net)
177 points by jgrahamc on Apr 10, 2017 | hide | past | web | favorite | 83 comments

For those unfamiliar with CoAP, it's a REST based protocol for machine-to-machine communication targeted at IoT (Internet of Things) scenarios particularly in Home Automation.

NB: Unlike REST though, URLS begin COAP:// instead of HTTP:// or HTTPS://.

This site gives a good overview: https://www.slideshare.net/jvermillard/co-ap Whilst this gives a lot more info: http://coap.technology/

Also, the RFC is quite a nice read: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7252

I particularly like the introduction, which succinctly explains the value in realizing a subset of REST common with HTTP, while not just blindly trying to make a compressed version of HTTP. The end result is a protocol which is quite easy to map to each other, not just in terms of implementation but also in terms of mindset. Being familiar with HTTP means you won't feel completely lost in trying to learn CoAP, which is pretty cool.

This is great. Thanks for the link! Its well written and shows great clarity of thought. The practical considerations are always mentioned, and they thought of everything, even ddos amplification attacks. A thing of beauty.

s/Unlike REST/Unlike HTTP

I think your regular expression needs a /g at the end, no?

Edit: This was a serious question, not sure I deserve multiple downvotes

It only needs "/". "g" finds all matches, but there is only one match in the string.

Still needs the trailing /

Only for sed/perl. Not if you are using vim (although in that case it's missing the leading `:`).

There's open source work being done on these lights in the (totally awesome) home assistant community https://www.reddit.com/r/homeassistant/comments/61zuao/ikea_... and preliminary support is at https://github.com/home-assistant/home-assistant/pull/6263 The lights use ZLL, https://www.letscontrolit.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=219...

If Tradfri bulbs use ZLL, is it theoretically possible to connect Tradfri bulbs to an existing Hue network?

Yes, some people have done it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcBp3wamIU0

However Philips appear to be modifying Hue software to prevent it. Cloud lock-in. https://developers.meethue.com/comment/2337#comment-2337

There was a firmware change in 2016 that blocked 3rd party bulbs but it didn't take long for the public pressure to influence them enough to revert it.

Philips Hue hubs do work with 3rd party ZLL endpoints. However, the likely reason they disabled 3rd party device support was because all Zigbee products have compatibility issues; nothing works as well as staying with one brand.

You can't always control all features and can't update firmware of all 3rd party devices from any hub. Sometimes you just need to manually configure the drivers (in code).

According to Phillips [1] it is IKEA not implementing the standard as they expect it to be implemented. That said, it's hard to say who is right here. Either way, consumers are losing out.

As a side note, IKEA's brightest bulb is 1000lm which is much brighter than the brightest Hue bulb, and it's cheaper :) I can perhaps see why Phillips would not go out their way to resolve this issue.

[1] https://developers.meethue.com/comment/2686#comment-2686

Edit: fixed typo of watts vs lumen :)

"IKEA's brightest bulb is 1000W"

1000 Lumen. 1000 Watt bulbs exist for grow lights but IKEA doesn't make them that thirsty.

Aaaaand home assistant can "emulate" the hue bridge to integrate them all seamlessly:


The Hue Bridge connects an IP network to a ZigBee network. That component emulates the IP side: it accepts IP commands for lights and translates them to Home Assistant devices. That's handy if you have something like an Amazon Echo that knows how to communicate via Hue's IP protocol.

What I believe you are describing would require a ZigBee radio and support for the ZigBee Light Link protocol (or maybe ZigBee Home Automation?). Luckily, there's a PR being worked on to support that in Home Assistant: https://github.com/home-assistant/home-assistant/pull/6263

Second article in a short while that praises Ikea's implementation. In the face of the security disaster that IoT devices usually represent, I'm somewhat dumbfounded by the idea that it would be Ikea, of all companies, to break the mould.

Ikea, as far as I can tell, does a very good job of providing good value and products that are well-designed. From the electronics perspective, I have had a peek inside some of their LED fixtures and USB chargers and the designs inside are textbook and well-executed. I'm not at all surprised that an IoT implementation would be equally well-designed.

I bought some random Ashley Furniture coffee table from Fred Meyer for my house, not two days after I brought it home my 3-at-the-time year old 40lb daughter sat on it and broke the cheap as crap legs on the $50 table.

Meanwhile, my aunt has an Ikea Lack coffee table sitting in the basement of her shop holding up a 50lb Dell PowerEdge 1950 and it will still let me drop more on it without complaint.

Ikea products may be cheaper than others in certain situations, but quite honestly I trust them a whole lot more.

Ikea gets grief for being flat pack and using MDF, but in no way are those novel concepts. Ikea however, has executed on that better than their completion. I was shocked at how bad some flat packed MDF furniture from Target and Walmart was; they barely survived being put together!

Near as I can tell, they don't use _that_ much MDF, actually. They tend to jump straight from particle board to solid wood.

Ikea doesn't sell much solid wood, most of their "solid wood" is particle board with a solid wood outer layer.

FWIW the Hemnes line is solid wood (or at least has an option for it) and is excellent for the price.

"Top panel/ Side panel/ Drawer front: Particleboard, Acrylic paint, Foil, ABS plastic" http://www.ikea.com/us/en/catalog/products/20318601/

I couldn't find the wood option.

Lots of hollow stuff with only very little reinforcement. I've broken more than one piece in transport without any rough handling.

Fwiw 40lbs in motion produces more force than at rest. The area it is applied to (among other things) also changes how the beam handles the load. Lack tables have such simple construction that they may handle higher than usual loads without deformation; four large posts supporting a single beam pinned at the ends can handle a decent load, if the beam and posts are big enough. They might also use cheap hacks, like strengthening the bottom of the beam to account for increased tension.

Walmart has some pretty decent mdf tables for about the same price as similar ikea tables. Sometimes their construction is really good, too, such as this table[1]. It brings the posts in closer to center which distributes load better and increases load rating for the beam, and the post supports both the beam and the strut, and the strut helps reinforce the beam. Everything is brought in farther from the edge to make the effective load-bearing part of the beam smaller, which makes it stronger.

Their dressers are total shit, though, unless you pay a pretty penny for real wood.

[1] https://www.walmart.com/ip/17767350?wmlspartner=wlpa&adid=22...

I'm not a structural engineer, but I've sawn off the legs of a Lack table a few months ago, and they are hollow (I think fibre board) with wood blocks inside at both ends. Seems like a sturdy construction.

Ikea uses torsion boxes with cardboard a lot: http://www.core77.com/posts/26334/A-Look-at-Torsion-Boxes

Yep. It has the effect of making the top layer in compression, the top of the webbing in compression, the bottom of the webbing in tension, and the bottom layer in tension. The webbing distributes force as shear along a large area (and along the entire beam), so it can handle a great force with a pretty thin member. It's like building a really wide, really short I-beam. But better.

Because the top skin only has to resist compression and the bottom only tension, you can choose materials that will perform each of these best. The top can be really thin, while the bottom can be thicker, and the result will be a slightly stronger table than if both skins were a thickness in between. The length of the web will also directly affect the strength (part of why those table tops are so thick... to have longer webs)

In fact, you can build "torsion beams" that work like long torsion boxes, but instead as beams. A 6-foot long beam might weigh only 20lbs. Sit them on sawhorses and you now have a stowable assembly table. Another benefit to torsion beams is they are easier to construct straight because finding small members that are straight is easier than finding big thick straight members. (Uh.... let's ignore the obvious jokes here)

The downside to all this strength-hackery is, if one of the webs fail, structural integrity is gone. So don't land anything too heavy on a single spot.

When you're focusing on customer satisfaction and cost control I suspect any idea of an 'Cloud Light Control Panel' or some other such nonsense was axed rather quickly.

They'll be making plenty of money on the margins on the lamps and gateways as is.

Refreshing isn't it? Not familiar with IKEA's track record in electronics though. I've had mostly good experiences with the furniture (though price influences quality a lot). Bad experiences with their cheap wok pans. But generally my IKEA stuff works well.

Nice to seem them align with standards though, because they seem to have their own standards for curtains. Very upsetting :)

They do have a well-proven track record of providing very good value for money, and I get the impression that they achieve the prices they do through ruthless optimisation of their processes. I'm curious to see how that culture extends to software engineering (Provided they do it in-house).

Certainly ruthless optimisation of their corporate structure with respect to tax helps contribute to their low prices: http://www.economist.com/node/6919139.

But it's nice to think that it could also be due to genuine technical ability.

Yeah, IKEA isn't really a saint, few corporations are. But they've done a lot of technical optimisation as well that should contribute to their low pricing. Flatpacks, big production runs, design stuff to be cheap to produce. A whole bunch of things.

And while I doubt their morals (corporations rarely have any) I generally have faith in their quality-to-price ratio. Not a resounding endorsement, just have had few problems.

And honestly if a company is going to evade or limit their taxes passing on part of the savings to consumers if fairly benevolent (if the tax avoidance contributes to the price as GP claims).

Only if the product is something which is generally useful and affordable for the entire population. Evading taxes on, say, megayachts and passing the savings on to the consumer doesn't seem particularly benevolent.

They're the largest "nonprofit" in the world. I think we can differentiate between standard corporate behavior and the single largest outlier.

Hmm, I wasn't familiar with them being quite that extreme. I've only heard people speak of it here and there and haven't read up on it.

It is fascinating though, they take a lot of things to extremes.

Yeah, I can imagine that if these things shake out well and I figure they should sell fine, IKEA will slowly add more and more software-driven stuff to their line-up. No idea if that means in-house software engineering, I imagine it wouldn't as they want to keep prices low. Just heavy QA? Or they might eat the cost for local development since the software cost is pretty small and doesn't scale up with the number of units produced.

> Bad experiences with their cheap wok pans.

They do have a set of cheap table serrated-edge steak knives (SNITTA - set of 4 for $5) that are actually quite nice when you look at them closely; stainless steel with a tang that goes completely down the handle.

Not sure what the handle is made out of, but its solidly attached, and the set my wife and I bought has lasted almost a decade going thru the dishwasher and such, and still look nearly brand new. They say they can be used as a utility knife; they'd probably cut cardboard well, maybe other stuff, but I prefer other tools for that kind of thing.

I actually like them better than a set I have that are identical to the large steak knives they put out (or did at one time) at the Outback Steakhouse restaurant (not saying anything about the food - I just liked the knives).

Some day I'm going to pick up a set of Knork knives (I already love their namesake utensils), but I bet I still might like the Ikea set better.

I have a dream that they'll sell something like (or maybe the same product) the Oxfam OX flatpack truck to consumers.

I want one of those so bad, to the point where I've considered building one from scratch. I doubt we'll ever see one of them stateside, though, because they look like a deathtrap in an accident.

Though I wonder if, as a "kit car" put together by the owner and not sold as a complete vehicle, they couldn't be legally registered and driven as an "experimental" vehicle (which is what I would have to get if I self-built one)?

bigclivedotcom has done some positive teardowns of IKEA electronic products: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=ikea+bigclivedo...

I think Apple's HomeKit deserves a mention here.

Is it open protocol? If not, then it's pretty much useless anyway.

Indeed, they might even have exaggerated it. The computations are expensive and can take several seconds even on powerful MCUs. There are HomeKit chips that can accelerate this, but good luck getting your hands on one (or its manual).

It does? I honestly haven't heard much about HomeKit from a security perspective, so I guess it is either not used or working out well so far :)

Has it been generally well received security-wise then?

It's probably the most secure, but that's because they cheat and require a secure element in all products with a pre-shared key.

Not a good solution in general.

You mean that HomeKit-compatible products all need to include some kind of HomeKit-chip with a pre-shared key or something? I'm completely unfamiliar and a quick search on homekit and pre-shared key didn't make me wiser :)

You don't even get to know what's inside HomeKit until you're an MFI-certified developer with Apple. And yes, there's a chip involved (again, which you can't even touch until you're an MFI licensee). The chip handles all the security protocols involved.


That doesn't sound in line with my preferences but quite Apple. So maybe high quality (hard to say?) but quite proprietary.

Makes me curious about how that homebridge node thing makes it work.

Well, it's pretty simple. If you want into Apple's ecosystem, you follow their rules. They've hardware-locked many other external things (dongles, charging cables, etc).

Cynics will say it's a money grab, proponents will say it greatly reduces or eliminates the risk of buying something that will not work right. Apple sells itself on the ability of their things working right out of the box.

> proponents will say it greatly reduces or eliminates the risk of buying something that will not work right.

IIRC, it's been shown that a massive percentage of the Apple chargers for sale on Amazon are difficult to spot counterfeits. Some of those use dangerous electronic designs.

Yeah, unfortunately Apple can't stop everyone from making bad 5VDC bricks with USB sockets. Perhaps the "approved" cables have some kind of overvoltage protection in them, but otherwise that's always been a weak point.

I guess it does, yes. But then I expect a lot more from Apple that I do from Ikea on this market.

actually, i'd be surprised if apple had better ideas here than ikea. ikea is a home and furniture company and always has been. apple is neither, it's a luxury goods company at this point.

apple can definitely execute, though. it just has to execute the right thing.

For reference, Tradfri is an IoT lighting kit:


I got the impression from an earlier article that it is completely without Internet though. So more LAN of Things?

That's the real problem with most of the "Internet of Things" products - they really shouldn't have skipped the "Network of Things" step. So many of the problems with these products could have been reasonably and properly shaken down and out... but instead all of the companies decided to unnecessarily bridge their products with the cloud and hastily rush to the market.

The problem is that with mobile and all the NAT firewalls in use today, going to a cloud service and back is easiest way to connect any two devices.

Security aspects aside, that's fine - what isn't is the inability to run that external server yourself.

Imagine if instead of using "proprietary cloud xyz" for a particular IoT product, you could spin up a cloud server or container up somewhere and install it yourself - and as long as you pay for the server, you have access.

Let the consumer decide based on their "expertise" level what option they want to use - but the option should be there, and included in some form with the product itself (maybe on an sd card or something), so that they could at least transition to that should the company go out of business. Ideally, the system would be open source as well, so it could be expanded.

Depending on who you ask, IoT = anything that speaks TCP/IP. Many 'IoT' products can be used without access to the 'public' internet.

Fair enough. At least it doesn't run through some cloud solution that will leave it bricked when it stops running. Glad they've chosen an interoperable approach even though they don't explicitly encourage interop.

Intranet of Things, as all of those products should be. Cloud integration is most of the times an anti-feature (even if marketed otherwise).

Off topic, I really like that term. Can we promote that? I'd gladly true more "LAN-of-things" devices than the current internet-of-things hype.

Intranet of Things

I bought some of these this weekend. The big perk? You don't need to use them as IoT devices at all. Hold one button to pair with a remote and you are done.

Unlike say the very expensive power mattress base (bad Ergotron) I bought which has sleep tracking that will only work if I reveal all my health data on my phone to their app. This includes data not collected by the mattress. It also requires you give your wifi password. They explicitly tell you they are going to sync it all to their cloud.

They basically demand the keys to the kingdom when all they should need is some basic bluetooth syncing to my phone. Obviously I did not move forward with the sleep tracking functionality.

There seems to be conflicting info on whether the lights themselves support ZigBee Light Link (ZLL) or only ZigBee HA. Has anybody tested this?

Also I'm curious if they're still ZigBee 2 or if they're ZigBee 3.0, which essentially merges those standards together.

IOT, how long until the Homebridge plugin is posted? https://github.com/nfarina/homebridge

COAP is so much nicer than MQTT. MQTT is consultant-driven over-engineering and under delivery par excellence.

I use CoAP in my small DIY projects (ESP8266 mostly for now)… but sometimes I wish I used MQTT, because with the broker model you can put your device in deep sleep and only wake up occasionally, saving power. On the other hand the REST server model lets me adjust polling frequency on the client side, without storing any config in the device…

Is there anything about CoAP prevents a deep sleep? I use CoAP for work your comment left me confused

Well… the device being a server instead of a client :D

I mean you could make it a client, sure, but I think that kinda defeats the point.

It is a good example of marketing dollars influencing protocol adoption. I've met a remarkable number of people that work in IoT that know nothing of CoAP.

Which aspects of MQTT are you not happy with?

Yeah, I'm not getting the MQTT hate either.

With Mosquitto, I can run a very tiny broker. And things as small as "Arduino with ethernet chip" can serve as a MQTT client. I'd consider something that can run in 16MHz with 2k ram and 32k storage to not be something "consultant-driven over-engineering and under delivery par excellence."

yes, but without communication security

Indeed. If you're going with an Arduino/ethernet you are not going to get SSL layer between client/broker. Then again, you do get the security of being on a wired network, and little to no RF emissions.

If you "upgrade" to an ESP class microprocessor, you do get MQTT, CoAP, and SSL support. And frankly the more protocols, the better. Some do tend to be better than others in different situations. I know I greatly prefer MQTT, for its clean and basic protocol. It gets out of the way for me to do what I want, basic Pub/Sub and storing relevant data into a MongoDB for timeseries.

I know at work, we're using RabbitMQ (AMQP). It has its own positives and negatives. My biggest concern is it serves as a forward-and-store datastore - another place where backups need to be made, let we lose essential data. I'm against complex moving parts, where simpler moving parts would suffice.

I had no idea .well-known was a standard (RFC 5785). Strange choice of name for a site metadata location.

It's to prevent a proliferation of things like /favicon.ico, /robots.txt, etc. each of which may actually be dynamically generated (e.g. think of subdomains like someguy.tumblr.com ), and therefore requires separate handling in firewalls, routing, etc. Basically many of the same problems you might encounter with librarys whose API is a bunch of globals; or a shell script which takes in options from hardcoded file paths rather than commandline flags or env vars.

The ".well-known" path makes this easier to manage going forward, since you can single it out for special handling once, and implement the contents however you like (statically, dynamically, whatever).

Not to mention that there's also an IANA registry for these URLs, so things can be a little less ad-hoc: https://www.iana.org/assignments/well-known-uris/well-known-...

Good to see. Investing time in any IKEA infrastructure is probably a high-factor value return.

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