A secure coding standard form CERT should focus entirely on describing conventions and program properties that do not already follow from the standard as a matter of correctness.
For instance, it's a security problem if, say, we manipulate sensitive data and then don't wipe the memory. That does not violate ISO C in any way.
A perfectly ISO C and POSIX conforming application could have a race condition with regard to a symbolic link. Or some time-of-check-to-time-of-use (TOCtoTOU) race.
A perfectly ISO C and POSIX application could do something stupid with permissions.
Creating a listening socket for local use and not restricting it to the loopback address (like 127.0.0.1 on IPv4) should fail a security review.
There are all kinds of things that either follow from the language and API documents in very non-obvious ways, or not at all.
Not initializing an object and then using it falls into a catch-all bucket of "language violation" that can be covered in a paragraph or two.
> A secure coding standard form CERT should focus entirely on describing conventions and program properties that do not already follow from the standard as a matter of correctness.
from CERT 1.7
"The wiki also contains two platform-specific annexes at the time of this writing; one annex for POSIX and one for Windows. These annexes have been omitted from this standard because they are not part of the core standard."
So while the CERT does use some examples from system interfaces its not a standard for programming the system interfaces for POSIX or Windows. It looks like there trying to limit the standard to ISO C. The examples you gave fall into the system interface category. POSIX is huge and the same for Windows, much bigger then ISO C.
I think in order to explain conventions for a system interface you really need a longer form publication like a book. So you can take 50 pages to describe an interface and how to use it and show examples etc.
The best way that I have found to figure this stuff out is the standard way. You get a copy of all the relevant standards as a foundation, ISO, POSIX, Window and stuff like CERT. Then you you get some of the system programming books (listed below). Then you find get some good reference code that show best practice. usually code from the operating system or utilities. Lastly read all the compiler docs and tool docs to set up the best code analysis framework you can.
These are a few system programming books that I use.
(best intro book) GNU/Linux Application Programming
UNIX Systems Programming
Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment
Windows System Programming
The Linux Programming Interface
edit: I'm not sure your skill level, you may have seen all of those but I posted them regardless. There is a lot of security and convention in those books.