Only for new applications. These written for the old ABIs still trip over after the 240th character, even though the FileSystem supports much more.
To put in another words: I belive the inherent unix limitations (process model for terminals, process signalling, lack of structure) are still less limiting than DOS assumptions about the consumer hardware and applications of the 80's.
Unix applications written using old assumptions (e.g. ?14? characters max for symbol names in libraries, ?16? bit address space, assuming the C library knows of gets) can have problems on modern systems, too.
Lots of people still use Windows applications with the limitations mentioned here, either because they refuse to give up their 1990s Windows applications, or the weird little ISVs refuse to update their code.