- Edward Lee's "The Problem with Threads": https://www2.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2006/EECS-2006-...
- The occasionally hilarious chapter on concurrency (especially the "Concurrentgate" section) from Andrei Alexandrescu's "The D Programming Language", available in its entirety here: http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1609144
I think MS made great progress with the TPL and kickstarted an industry-wide movement with async/await. But certain aspects of C# still drive me nuts and will allow a junior dev to blow a leg off (I'd give my left arm for C++-style const references and/or compiler-enforced immutability). At one point I went so far as to play around with a Rosyln analyzer to tackle the problem (https://github.com/markwaterman/CondensedDotNet/blob/master/...), but gave up after realizing anything more then a token effort would be a huge undertaking.
Other languages are nibbling away at the edge of the concurrency problem with language-level support for CSP (golang), actors, etc., but, outside of the functional world (Erlang), I don't seen anyone working to address concurrency from the ground up.