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You can now have a website secured by a certificate issued by a Google CA, hosted on Google web infrastructure, with a domain registered using Google Domains, resolved using Google Public DNS, going over Google Fiber, in Google Chrome on a Google Chromebook. Google has officially vertically integrated the Internet.



What's remaining is: server written in Go, running on a Google server OS, located on a Google designed server appliance, which is centrally controlled by a Google designed microprocessor, which is finally manufactured in a Google owned semiconductor foundry. Oh, and the sand used for silicon purification is sourced from a Google-owned stretch of beach.

I haven't considered the internals of the datacenter though...


Go poke around: https://research.google.com/pubs/papers.html

You will see lots of custom stuff that Google does. There are many things that are better to outsource to 3rd parties, but many things are better in-house because the solutions just don't exist or they cost too much for the volume they need. Some examples:

Network routers for CLOS topology (there are pictures of some of the hardware): https://research.google.com/pubs/pub43837.html

Custom built SSDs (custom firmware/controller with a mix of flash chips from various vendors): https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/fast16/fast16...

Then you the TPU custom chip for running Tensorflow.


Sorry, but it's Clos, which is named after Charles Clos. Pronounced "Cloh". This only bugs me because I've seen this done so many times - specific domain knowledge nerd rant over.


Interesting stuff. I've heard about the TPU chip but not the rest.

They're still eons away from e.g. Intel or Samsung when it comes to vertical integration on the hardware side.

I believe that Samsung is the only company in the world that is capable of building an entire computer (e.g., laptop or smartphone) from scratch completely in-house. They can design software and OSes AND manufacture SoCs, memory, LED panels, etc. It's very impressive.


On that note it would be really interesting to see the percentage breakdown of who's IP made your phone/laptop/etc


What I am waiting for is a good shopping experience hosted by Google. Can for the life of my not understand why did still haven't done this because it would solve so many of their problems wrt ads and purchasing.


Google had one years ago, Google Checkout [1]. It was a PayPal competitor that was built to also provide a good API for running shopping cart experiences. Another on the list of good products that Google built, ran until they got bored with it, then closed.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Checkout


Amazon have too far a head start on that one but it is ironic that google seem to be able to crawl and index amazon better than amazon can do internally.


It has seemed to me for quite some time that Amazon deliberately tries NOT to return what you are searching for. Oh, they'll give you one or two items that fit your search criteria, but they'll also return lots of stuff that they think you'll be interested in and possibly buy.


I do not think this would be allowed within the European Union.


What? There's a big "shopping" tab at the top of every search results page.


But do you use it? Probably not. Is it usable, are the results good? Nope. Is it a good user experience? Not the few times I've tried it.


AOL is dead, long live AOL!/s

For serious though, there's not really any lock-in here (yet). You could replace everything from the certificate through the public DNS with GoDaddy and things would work just fine. I don't really see Google moving to close the web parts of this.


We still need to make choices that guarantee it's the case in the future. We need to ensure we don't end up with environment as diverse as email where most people use Gmail, or Linux services which are all being rewritten under systemd, or many other cases where we voluntarily choose a monoculture that can force our choices in the future...


> We need to ensure we don't end up with environment as diverse as email where most people use Gmail

Good luck making something that's both 1) the most convenient and 2) not centralized.


good luck? with that attitude you deserve shitty centralized systems that spy on you. decentralization and ease of use aren't contradictory anyway. remember bit torrent? used to be very popular, even among less technical users. great UX too. click a magnet link and you have your content in a flash.

the problem is that there isn't a multi-billion dollar business case for decentralized user systems. a lot of server/dc tech is both decentralized and distributed because it is a more robust architecture. again, the reason this doesn't extend to the consumer is because it give them too much control and clogs up the revenue stream.

this isn't a technical or usability problem, as you claim. this is 100% economic.


Spam blocking is a problem that's very difficult to solve without massive scale. Decentralized email used to suck for filtering spam because they simply didn't have the scale needed to recognize spam reliably.

WordPress solved the spam issue for decentralized blog comments by centralizing it, which gives them the scale to solve it well but also gives them the ability to read probably half the blog comments on the web in real time.


No, it really isn't. Download a copy of SpamAssassin, train it on 400 hand-picked spams from your own mailbox, train it on 400 arbitrary hams as well, and you will have very accurate spam filtering. I was shocked how well it worked; I run my own mail personally and use GMail at work, and the results are (subjectively) indistinguishable. A Dovecot plugin that keeps the Bayesian numbers up to date as I move messages in and out of the Spam and Archive (for ham) folder completes the picture.

To go deeper, it turns out that Bayesian filtering is remarkably resilient. Even attacks which try to poison your filters by including ham-like content in spams are ineffective, because spammers cannot very accurately predict what your own particular flavor of ham is like. (People don't often mail me passages from out-of-copyright Victorian romance novels.)

I find that a few botnet-reducing SMTP heuristics plus Bayesian is sufficient; I dallied with some of the fanciness that compares known-spam hashes with other people, but it turned out not to be necessary.


Maybe it has changed but I have vivid memories of training lots of spam a decade or so ago and still getting half-assed results. Google was the first email provider that really did a good job blocking spam.


There is one setting, underdocumented, which makes a big difference these days. spamc has a default ceiling of 10K, messages larger than which it passes unchecked. Spammers have started routinely including images just over that threshold to defeat default installs. Bump that up a bit, and your accuracy will go way up.


I find it disingenuous to compare Google vertically integrating the Internet with systemd, a FLOSS product that objectively solves many of problems init systems had.


> I don't really see Google moving to close the web parts of this.

Google actively restricts which programs and extensions you can install on a Chromebook and Android, Google restricts what you can publish on their infrastructure, and AMP is also becoming somewhat of a problem.

On Android, Google killed all other push notification services (and tries to prevent people from writing open source libraries for theirs), by only allowing notifications from Google Cloud Messaging to work when the device is saving battery (basically always on recent versions).

After trying to fight this for quite a while, I do really see Google moving to close this.


Funded mostly by you looking at Google Ads.


Nope. Funded mostly by you clicking at Google Ads. Looking is for free.


Remember they own DoubleClick, the biggest banner ad platform.

https://support.google.com/dfp_premium/answer/177222?hl=en


And monetized and paid for through google ads. It's your life, packaged.


And you sure are added to my favorite comment if the week, Indeed Google wants to be the complete stack.


And you can discover such website using Google (the search engine).


so like Amazon.


There's an Amazon ISP?



To clarify, that's a CA, not an ISP


But as Google wants to stop the Fiber project, they will also stop being one. Apparently being an ISP adds no value to the rest.


I wonder, with Alphabet's investment in SpaceX, if they see satilite as the future instead of fiber.




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