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For what it's worth I had asked someone the very same question when I started my career.

From the horses mouth take a look at ext4 on ubuntu https://help.ubuntu.com/community/LinuxFilesystemsExplained

Then a 10,000 mile view, I'd take a look at UNIX and Linux https://www.amazon.com/UNIX-Linux-System-Administration-Hand...

There are more books I could list and papers on FileSystems. I will leave you with three particular books that have guided my career

If you want to look solely at Ubuntu. The Ubuntu Server book https://www.amazon.com/Official-Ubuntu-Server-Book-3rd/dp/01...

Unix Made Easy - https://www.amazon.com/UNIX-Made-Easy-John-Muster/dp/0072193...

Hope this helps

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